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Ficus and fig wasp references


(Life; Embryophyta (plants); Angiospermae (flowering plants); Eudicotyledons; Order: Rosales; Family: Moraceae; Genus: Ficus)

This list has yet to become a comprehensive compilation. Ideally we would like to develop a resource that includes all publications dealing with any aspect of life associated with fig trees. Please send details of additional or missing publications to Simon van Noort.



























Valdeyron G, Lloyd DG. 1979. Sex differences and flowering phenology in the common fig, Ficus carica L. Evolution 33:673–685.

Valentine, E.W. & Walker, A.K. 1983. Three families of Hymenoptera new to New Zealand. New Zealand Entomologist. 7:397-400.

van Achterberg, C., and G. D. Weiblen. 2000. Ficobracon brusi gen. nov. & spec. nov. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid reared from figs in Papua New Guinea. Zoologische Mededelingen Leiden 74, 51-55.

van Bruggen AC, van Achterberg C. 2000. In memoriam Prof. J. T. Wiebes (1931–1999), evolutionary biologist and systematic entomologist. Zool. Med. Leiden 74:271–281.

van Der Pijl, L. 1957. The Dispersal Of Plants By Bats (Chiropterophily. Acta Botanica Neerlandia 6, 291-315.

van Der Zee, D. & Skinner, J. D. 1977. Preliminary Observations On Samango And Vervet Monkeys Near Lake Sibaya. South African Journal Of Science 73, 381-382.

van Jaarsveld, E. & Voight, W. 2003. Climbing cliffs in the Kaokoveld. Botanical exploration in northern Namibia. Veld & Flora 89(4): 152-155.

van Noort, S. 1992. The systematics and phylogenetics of the Sycoecinae (Agaonidae, Chalcidoidea, Hymenoptera). Unpublished PhD thesis, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa.

van Noort, S. 1993a. Systematics of the Sycoecine fig wasps (Agaonidae, Chalcidoidea, Hymenoptera), I (Seres). Proceedings of the Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wettenschappen, 96(2): 233-251.  

van Noort, S. 1993b. Systematics of the Sycoecine fig wasps (Agaonidae, Chalcidoidea, Hymenoptera), II (Sycoecus). Proceedings of the Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wettenschappen, 96(4): 449-475.  

van Noort, S. 1994a. Systematics of the Sycoecine fig wasps (Agaonidae, Chalcidoidea, Hymenoptera), III (Crossogaster). Proceedings of the Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wettenschappen, 97(1): 83-122.  

van Noort, S. 1994b. Systematics of the Sycoecine fig wasps (Agaonidae, Chalcidoidea, Hymenoptera), IV (Philocaenus, in part). Proceedings of the Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wettenschappen, 97(3): 311-339.  

van Noort, S. 1994c. Systematics of the Sycoecine fig wasps (Agaonidae, Chalcidoidea, Hymenoptera), V (Philocaenus, concluded; generic key; checklist). Proceedings of the Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wettenschappen, 97(3): 341-375.  

van Noort, S. 2003. Fig wasps and the pollination of figs, pp12-21. In Burrows, J. & Burrows, S. Figs of southern & south-central Africa. Umdaus Press, Hatfield, 379pp.

van Noort, S. 2004. Fig Wasp (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Agaonidae, Pteromalidae, Eurytomidae & Ormyridae) and Ficus (Moraceae) Species Richness and Biogeography of Monts Doudou in South-Western Gabon. California Academy of Sciences Memoir 28: 217-233. pdf

van Noort, S. 2004. How fig trees are pollinated – the ultimate challenge. Veld & Flora March 2004: 13-15. pdf

van Noort, S. & Compton, S.G. 1988. Two new species of Otitesella (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Pteromalidae) from Ficus burtt-davyi. Proc. Kon. Ned. Akad. Wet. Ser. C 91:419–427.

van Noort, S. & Compton, S.G. 1996. Convergent evolution of Agaoninae and Sycoecinae (Agaonidae, Chalcidoidea) head shape in response to the constraints of host fig morphology. Journal of Biogeography, 23: 415-424.  

van Noort, S. & Compton, S.G. 1999. Fig wasps (Agaonidae, Hymenoptera) and fig trees (Moraceae) of Mkomazi. In Coe, M. J., McWilliam, N. C., Stone, G. N. & Packer, M. (eds). Chapter 18: 299-320. Mkomazi: the ecology, biodiversity and conservation of a Tanzanian Savanna. Royal Geographical Society (with The Institute of British Geographers), London.

van Noort S., Gardiner, A.J., Tolley K.A. 2007. New records of Ficus (Moraceae) species emphasize the conservation significance of inselbergs in Mozambique. South African Journal of Botany 73: 642-649.

van Noort, S., Peng, Y.Q. & Rasplus, J.Y. 2006. First record of the fig wasp genus Diaziella Grandi (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Pteromalidae: Sycoecinae) from the Asian mainland with description of two new species from China. Zootaxa 1337: 39-59.

van Noort, S., Prinsloo, G.L. & Compton, S.G. 2000. Hymenoptera excluding Apoidea (Apiformes) & Formicidae (Insecta) (pp. 289-364). In Kirk-Spriggs, A.H. & Marais, E. (eds). Dâures - biodiversity of the Brandberg Massif, Namibia. Cimbebasia Memoir 9, National Museum of Namibia, Windhoek, 1-389 pp.

van Noort, S. & Rasplus, J.Y. 1997. Revision of the otiteselline fig wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Agaonidae), I : Otitesella digitata species-group of the Afrotropical region, with a key to Afrotropical species of Otitesella Westwood. African Entomology, 5(1): 125-145.

van Noort, S. & Rasplus, J.Y. 2005. Revision of the Papua New Guinean fig wasp genus Robertsia Bouček(Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Pteromalidae, Sycoecinae). Zootaxa 929: 1-35.

van Noort, S & Rasplus, J.Y. 2010. Order Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea associated with figs (families Agaonidae & Pteromalidae). In: A. van Harten (ed.) Arthropod fauna of UAE 3, pp 325-355.

van Noort, S. & van Harten, A. 2006. Fig Wasp (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Agaonidae, Pteromalidae) and Ficus (Moraceae) Species Richness of Yemen. Fauna of Arabia 22: 449-472.

van Noort, S., Wang, R. & Compton, S.G. 2013. Fig wasps (Hymenoptera; Chalcidoidea: Agaonidae, Pteromalidae) associated with Asian fig trees (Ficus, Moraceae) in Southern Africa: Asian followers and African colonistsAfrican Invertebrates 54: 381–400.

van Noort, S., Ware, A.B. & Compton, S.G. 1989. Pollinator-specific volatile attractants released from the figs of Ficus burtt-davyi. South African Journal of Science, 85: 323-324.

van Schaik, C. P. & van Noordwijk, M. A. 1988. Scramble And Contest In Feeding Competition Among Female Long-Tailed Macaques (Macaca Fascicularis. Behaviour 105, 77-98.

van Schaik, C. P. 1996. Strangling Figs: Their Role In The Forest. In: Leuser: A Sumatran Sanctuary (Ed. C. P. Van Schaik And J. Supriatna), Pp. 112-120. Yabshi, Depok, Indonesia.

Vásquez-Yanes, C., Orozco, A., Francois, G. & Trejo, L. 1975. Observations Of Seed Dispersal By Bats In A Tropical Humid Region In Veracruz, Mexico. Biotropica 7, 73-76.

Vellayon, S. 1981. The Nutritive Value Of Ficus In The Diet Of The Lar Gibbon (Hylobates Lar. Malaysian Applied Biology 10, 177-181.

Verkerke, W. 1987. Syconial Anatomy Of Ficus Asperifolia (Moraceae), A Gynodioecious Tropical Fig. Proceeding Of The Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie Van Wetenschappen C 90, 461-492.

Verkerke, W. 1989. Structure and function of the fig. Experientia 45: 612–621.

Villa-R, B. 1967. Los Murcielagos De Mexico. Instituto De Biologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma De Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico.

Vincent, S.L. & Compton, S.G. 1992. A new polymorphic species of fig wasp from Ficus ingens (Moraceae). Journal of African Zoology. 106(4):363-370.

Vovlas, N. & Larizza, A. 1996. Relationship of Schistonchus caprifici (Aphelonchoididae) with fig inflorescences, the fig pollinator Blastophaga psenes, and its cleptoparasite Philotrypesis caricae. Fundamental and Applied Nematology. 19(5):443-448.

Vovlas, N.; Inserra, R.N. & Greco, N. 1992. Schistonchus caprifici parasitizing caprifig (Ficus carica sylvestris) florets and the relationship with its fig wasp (Blastophaga psenes) vector. Nematologica. 38(2):215-226.  

Vovlas, N., Troccoli, A., van Noort, S. & van Den Berg E. 1998. Schistonchus africanus n. sp. (Tylenchida: Aphelenchoididae) associated with Ficus thonningii (Moraceae) and its pollinator wasp Elisabethiella stuckenbergi (Agaonidae, Chalcidoidea, Hymenoptera). Journal of Nematology 30: 404-410.

Web authors Simon van Noort (Iziko South African Museum)

and Jean-Yves Rasplus (INRA, France)


Citation: van Noort, S. & Rasplus, JY. 2024. Figweb: figs and fig wasps of the world. URL: www.figweb.org(Accessed on <day-month-year>).

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