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Ficus and fig wasp references


(Life; Embryophyta (plants); Angiospermae (flowering plants); Eudicotyledons; Order: Rosales; Family: Moraceae; Genus: Ficus)

This list has yet to become a comprehensive compilation. Ideally we would like to develop a resource that includes all publications dealing with any aspect of life associated with fig trees. Please send details of additional or missing publications to Simon van Noort.



























Kalina, J. 1988. Ecology And Behaviour Of The Black-And-White Casqued Hornbill (Bycanistes Subcylindricus) In Kibale Forest, Uganda. Ph.D. Thesis, Michigan State University, USA.

Kalko, E. K. V. 1997. Diversity In Tropical Bats. In Tropical Biodiversity And Systematics (Ed. H. Ulrich), Pp. 13-43. Zool Forschungsinstitut Und Museum Alexander Koenig, Bonn, Germany.

Kalko, E. K. V., Herre, E. A. & Handley, C. O. J. 1996. Relation Of Fig Fruit Characteristics To Fruit-Eating Bats In The New And Old World Tropics. Journal Of Biogeography 23, 565-576.

Kameyama, T., Harrison, R. & Yamamura, N. 1999. Persistence of a figwasp population and evolution of dioecy in figs: a simulation study. Researches on Population Ecology 41:243–252.

Kannan, R. 1994. Ecology And Conservation Of The Great Pied Hornbill In The Western Ghats Of Southern India. Ph.D. Thesis, University Of Arkansas, USA.

Kantak, G. E. 1979. Observation On Some Fruit-Eating Birds In Mexico. Auk 96, 183-186.

Kaplin, B. A., Munyyaligoga, V., Moermond, T. C. 1998. The Influence Of Temporal Changes In Fruit Availability On Diet Composition And Seed Handling In Blue Monkeys (Cercopithecus Mitis Doggetti. Biotropica 30, 56-71.

Kappeler, M. 1984. Diet And Feeding Behaviour Of The Moloch Gibbon. In The Lesser Apes. Evolutionary And Behavioural Biology (Ed. H. Preuschoft, D. J. Chivers, W. Y. Brockelman And N. Creel), Pp. 242-257. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, Uk.

Kathuria P, Ganeshaiah KN, Shaanker RU, Vasudeva R. 1995. Is there a dimorphism for style lengths in monoecious figs? Curr. Sci. 68:1047–1050.

Kathuria, P., Greeff , J. M., Compton, S. G. & Ganeshaiah, K. N. 1999. What fig wasp sex ratios may or may not tell us about sex allocation strategies. Oikos 87, 520-530.

Kaufmann, S., Mckey, D. B., Hossaert-Mckey, M., Horvitz, C. C. 1991. Adaptations For A Two-Phase Seed Dispersal System Involving Vertebrates And Ants In A Hemi-Epiphytic Fig (Ficus Microcarpa, Moraceae. American Journal Of Botany 78, 971-977.

Kauth, M., Engel, S., Lastimoza, L. L. & Curio, E. 1998. Observations On The Breeding Biology Of The Writhed-Billed Hornbill (Aceros Waldeni) In The Philippines. Journal Of Ornithology 139, 475-483.

Kawamichi, T. & Kawamichi, M. 1979. Spatial Organisation And Territoriality Of Tree Shrews (Tupaia Glis. Animal Behaviour 27, 381-393.

Kays, R. W. 1999. Food Preferences Of Kinkajous (Potos Flavus): A Frugivorous Carnivore. Journal Of Mammalogy 80, 589-599.

Kerdelhué C. & J.Y. Rasplus, 1996a. The evolution of dioecy among Ficus (Moraceae): an alternate hypothesis involving non-pollinating fig wasp pressure on the fig-pollinator mutualism. Oikos 77: 163-166.

Kerdelhué C. & J.Y. Rasplus, 1996b. Non-pollinating afrotropical fig wasps affect the fig-pollinator mutualism in Ficus within the subgenus Sycomorus. Oikos 75: 3-14.

Kerdelhué C., I. Le Clainche & J.Y. Rasplus, 1999. Molecular phylogeny of the Ceratosolen species pollinating Ficus of the subgenus Sycomorus sensu stricto : biogeographical history and origins of the species-specificity breakdown cases. Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution 11: 401-414.

Kerdelhué C., M. Hochberg & J.Y. Rasplus, 1997. Active pollination of Ficus sur by two sympatric fig wasp species in West Africa. Biotropica 29: 69-75.

Kerdelhué C., J.P. Rossi & J.Y. Rasplus, 2000. Comparative community ecology studies on Old World figs and fig wasps. Ecology 81: 2832–2849.

Khadari B, Gibernau M, Anstett M-C, Kjellberg F, Hossaert-McKey M. 1995. When figs wait for pollinators: The length of fig receptivity. American Journal of Botany 82: 992-999.

Kieffer, J.J. 1911. Description de deux nouveaux chalcidides. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France. 80: 463-466.

Kiester, A.R., Lande, R. & Schemske, D.W. 1984. Models of coevolution and speciation in plants and their pollinators. Am. Nat. 124: 220–243.

Kilner, T. 2000. The Behaviour And Ecology Of The Buton Macaque Macaca Brunnescens. M.Sc Thesis. Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, Uk.

Kinnaird M. F., O'brien, T. G. & Suryadi, S. 1996. Population Fluctuation In Sulawesi Red-Knobbed Hornbill Aceros Cassidix: Tracking Figs In Space And Time. Auk 113, 431-440.

Kinnaird M. F., O'brien, T. G. & Suryadi, S. 1999. The Importance Of Figs To Sulawesi's Imperiled Wildlife. Tropical Biodiversity 6, 5-18.

Kinnaird, M. F. & O'brien, T. G. 1993. Preliminary Observation On The Breeding Ecology Of The Endemic Sulawesi Red-Knobbed Hornbill. Tropical Biodiversity 1, 107-112.

Kinnaird, M. F. & O'brien, T. G. 1999. Breeding Ecology Of The Sulawesi Red Knobbed Hornbill Aceros Cassidix. Ibis 141, 60-69.

Kinoshita, M.; Kasuya, E. & Yahara, T. 1998. More highly female-biased sex ratio in the fig wasp, Blastophaga nipponica Grandi (Agaonidae). Researches on Population Ecology. 40(2):239-242.

Kirby, W.F. 1890. (In Ridley, H.N. -  Notes on the Zoology of Fernando Noronha.) Insecta, Excepting Coleoptera. Journal of the Linnean Society. 20:530-548.

Kirchner, L. 1867. Catalogus Hymenopterorum Europae.  285pp. Vindobonae.

Kissling, W.D., Rahbek, C., Böhning-Gaese, K. 2007. Food plant diversity as broad-scale determinant of avian frugivore richness. Proc. R. Soc. B 274: 799–808.

Kitamura, S. 2000. Seed Dispersal By Hornbills In A Tropical Rain Forest In Khao Yai National Park, Thailand. M.Sc. Thesis, Graduate School Of Science. Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

Kjellberg, F., &  Maurice, S. 1989. Seasonality in the reproductive phenology of Ficus—its evolution and consequences. Experientia 45:653–660.

Kjellberg, F. & Valdeyron, G. 1984. The pollination of the fig tree (Ficus carica L.) and its control in horticulture. Acta Oecologica, Oecologia Generalis. 5(4):407-412.

Kjellberg, F. & Valdeyron, G. 1990. Species-specific pollination: a help or a limitation to range extension. Monographiae Biologicae. 65:371-378.

Kjellberg, F.,Aljibouri, A. & Valdeyron, G. 1983. Recent observations on the pollination of the fig tree. Fruits, Paris. 38(7-8):567-569. 

Kjellberg F., B. Doumesche & J.L. Bronstein. 1988. Longevity of a fig wasp (Blastophaga psenes). Proceedings Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetschappen, 91: 117-122.    

Kjellberg, F., E. Jousselin, J. L. Bronstein, A. Patel, J. Yokoyama, & J.-Y. Rasplus. 2001. Pollination mode in fig wasps: the predictive power of correlated traits. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 268: 1113–1121.

Kjellberg F., P.H. Gouyon, M. Ibrahim, M. Raymond & G. Valdeyron, 1987. The stability of the symbiosis between dioecious figs and their pollinators: a study of Ficus carica L and Blastophaga psenes L. Evolution, 41(4): 693-704.  

Kjellberg, F. & Rasplus, J.Y. In prep. Taxonomy of Ficus (Moraceae) and of their mutualistic pollinating wasps (Agaonidae, Chalcidoidea): a pattern of strict parallel cladogenesis and some emerging biological patterns.

Klein, L. L. & Klein, D. B. 1977. Feeding Behaviour Of The Columbian Spider Monkey Ateles Belzebuth. In Primate Ecology: Studies Of Feeding And Ranging Behaviour In Lemurs, Monkeys And Apes (Ed. T. H. Clutton-Brock), Pp. 153-141. Academic Press, London, Uk.

Ko, I. W. P., Corlett, R. T. & Xu, R-J. 1998. Sugar Composition Of Wild Fruits In Hong Kong, China. Journal Of Tropical Ecology 14, 381-387.

Kobbi, M., Chaieb, M., Edelin, C., & Michaloud, G. 1996. Relationship between a mutualist and a parasite of the laurel fig, Ficus microcarpa L. Can. J. Zool. 74:1831–1833.

Kobmoo N., Vignes H., Hossaert-McKey M., Wei Z. & Kjellberg F. 2009. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite primers for Ceratosolen fusciceps, the fig pollinating wasp of Ficus racemosa, and amplification in two populations. Permanent Genetic Resource Note, 1147-1150.

Koh, L.P., Dunn, R.R., Sodhi, N.S., Colwell, R.K., Proctor, H.C. & Smith, V.S. 2004. Species Coextinctions and the Biodiversity Crisis. Science, 305, 1632-1634.

Kohlhaas, A. K. 1993. Behaviour And Ecology Of Macaca Nigrescens: Behavioural And Social Responses To The Environment And Fruit Availability. Ph.D. Thesis, University Of Colorado, Usa.

Korine, C., Izhaki, I. & Arad, Z. 1999. Is The Egyptian Fruit-Bat Rousettus Aegyptiacus A Pest In Israel? An Analysis Of The Bats' Diet And Implications For Its Conservation. Biological Conservation 88, 301-306.

Korine, C., Kalko, E. K. V. & Herre, E. A. 2000. Fruit Characteristics And Factors Affecting Fruit Removal In A Panamanian Community Of Strangler Figs. Oecologia 123, 560-568.

Krefting, L. W. & Roe, E. I. 1949. The Role Of Some Birds And Mammals In Seed Germination. Ecological Monographs 19, 269-286.

Kuttamathiathu JJ. 1959. The biology of Philotrypesis caricae (L.), parasite of Blastophaga psenes (L.) (Chalcidoidea: parasitic Hymenoptera). Proc. Int. Congr. Entomol. 15:662–664.

Web authors Simon van Noort (Iziko South African Museum)

and Jean-Yves Rasplus (INRA, France)


Citation: van Noort, S. & Rasplus, JY. 2024. Figweb: figs and fig wasps of the world. URL: www.figweb.org(Accessed on <day-month-year>).

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