HomeFigsFig waspsBiologyFig classificationWasp classificationWaspWebBiodiversity Explorer


Ficus and fig wasp references


(Life; Embryophyta (plants); Angiospermae (flowering plants); Eudicotyledons; Order: Rosales; Family: Moraceae; Genus: Ficus)

This list has yet to become a comprehensive compilation. Ideally we would like to develop a resource that includes all publications dealing with any aspect of life associated with fig trees. Please send details of additional or missing publications to Simon van Noort.



























Fabricius, J.C. 1781. Species Insectorum. 1:8+552pp. Hamburgi et Kilonii.

Fabricius, J.C. 1787. Mantissa Insectorum sistens species nuper detectas.  1:20+348pp. Copenhagen.

Fabricius, J.C. 1793. Entomologia Sistematica.  2:viii+519pp. Copenhagen.

Fabricius, J.C. 1804. Systema Piezatorum.  2:xiv+30+440pp. A.C. Reichard, Brunsvigae.

Farooqi, S.I. and Menon, M.G.R. 1973. Two new genera and three new species of Brachyscelidiphagini (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) associated with fruits of Ficus infectoria at Delhi. Indian Journal of Zoology. 1(2):139-144.

Farooqi, S.I. 1986. Family Torymidae. (In: Subba Rao, B.R.; Hayat, M. (Eds) - The Chalcidoidea (Insecta: Hymenoptera) of India and the adjacent countries. Part II.) Oriental Insects. 20:259-277.

Fazeli, M.J. 1987. Some preliminary research on Blastophaga psenes L. in Iran. Entomologie et Phytopathologie Appliquées. 54(1-2):39, 75-82.

Fellowes, M.D.E., Compton, S.G. and Cook, J.M. 1999. Sex allocation and local mate competition in Old World non- pollinating fig wasps. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 46: 95-102.

Ferrière, C. & Novicky, S. 1954. Un nouveau genre de torymide (Hym. Chalcidoidea). Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft. 27:33-37.


Ferrière, C. 1955. Les genres des Podagrionidae d'Afrique. Mémoirs de la Sociéte Royale Entomologie de Belgique.27:207-216.

Figueiredo R.A. & Motta Junior J.C. 1993. Biology of Walkerella yashiroi (ISHII) (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea). Naturalia (Rio Claro) 18, 27-32. pdf

Figueiredo R.A. 1993. Ingestion of Ficus enormis seeds by howler monkeys (Alouatta fusca) in Brazil: Effects on seed germination. Journal Of Tropical Ecology 9, 541-543.

Figueiredo R.A. & Queiroz J.M. 1994. Herbivory on an ornamental fig by a neotropical moth. Journal Of The Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society 109, 197-199.

Figueiredo R.A. & Perin E. 1995. Germination ecology of Ficus luschnathiana drupelets after bird and bat ingestion. Acta Oecologica 16, 71-75.

Figueiredo R.A., Motta Junior J.C. & Vasconcellos L.A.S. 1995. Pollination, seed dispersal, seed germination and establishment of seedlings of Ficus microcarpa, Moraceae, in southeastern Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Biologia 55, 233-239. pdf

Figueiredo R.A. 1996. Complex interactions in nature: Parrotlet feeding on fig fruits lessens seed dispersal and pollen flow. Ciência e Cultura (Sao Paulo) 48, 282-283. pdf

Figueiredo R.A. 1996. Vertebrates at neotropical fig species in a forest fragment. Tropical Ecology 37, 139-141.

Figueiredo R.A. & Sazima M. 1997. Phenology and pollination ecology of three Brazilian fig species (Moraceae). Botanica Acta 110, 73-78. pdf

Filho, O.M. 1937. Contribuiçao ao conhecimento dos insectos que vivem em figos do Brasil. Uma nova especie de Eupristina Saunders (Hym. Agaonidae, Agaoninae). Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro. 32(3):461-468.

Fleming, T. H. & Heithaus, E. R. 1981. Frugivorous Bats, Seed Shadows And The Structure Of Tropical Forests. Biotropica 13 (Suppl.), 45-53.

Fleming, T. H. 1981. Fecundity, Fruiting Pattern, And Seed Dispersal In Piper Amalago (Piperaceae), A Bat-Dispersed Tropical Shrub. Oecologia 51, 42-46.

Fleming, T. H. 1983. Carollia Perspicillata (Murcielago Candelaro, Lesser Short-Tailed Fruit Bat. In Costa Rican Natural History (Ed. D. H. Janzen), Pp. 457-458. University Of Chicago Press, Chicago, Usa.

Fleming, T. H., Heithaus, E. R. & Sawyer, W. B. 1977. An Experimental Analysis Of The Food Location Behaviour Of Frugivorous Bats. Ecology 58, 619-627.

Fleming, T. H., Hopper, E. T. & Wilson, D. E. 1972. Three Central American Bat Communities: Structure, Reproductive Cycles, And Movement Patterns. Ecology 53, 555-569.

Förster, A. 1856. Hymenopterologische Studien. 2. Chalcidiae und Proctotrupii.  152pp. Aachen.

Förster, A. 1878. Kleine monographien parasitischer Hymenopteren. Verhandlungen des Naturhistorischen Vereins der Preussischen Rheinlande und Westfalens, Bonn. 35:42-82.

Foster, R. B. 1982a. Famine On Barro Colorado Island. In The Ecology Of A Tropical Forest. Seasonal Rhythms And Long-Term Changes (Ed. E. G. Leigh Jr, A. S. Rand And D. M. Windsor), Pp. 210-212. Smithsonian Instituion Press, Washington D.C., Usa.

Foster, R. B. 1982b. The Seasonal Rhythm Of Fruitfall On Barro Colorado Island. In The Ecology Of A Tropical Forest. Seasonal Rhythms And Long-Term Changes (Ed. E. G. Leigh Jr, A. S. Rand And D. M. Windsor), Pp. 151-172. Smithsonian Instituion Press, Washington D.C., Usa.

Fragoso, J. M. V. 1997. Tapir-Generated Seed Shadows: Scale-Dependent Patchiness In The Amazon Rain Forest Journal Of Ecology 85, 519-529.

Fragoso, J. M.V. & Huffman, J. M. 2000. Seed-Dispersal And Seedling Recruitment Patterns By The Last Neotropical Megafaunal Element In Amazonia, The Tapir. Journal Of Tropical Ecology 16, 369-385.

Frank, J.H., Thomas, M.C. 1997. A new species of Charoxus (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) from native figs (Ficus spp.) in Florida. Journal of the NewYork Entomological Society 104: 70-78.


Frank, J.H. Nadel, H. 2012. Life cycle and behaviour of Charoxus spinifer and Charoxus major (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Aleocharinae), predators of fig wasps (Hymenoptera: Agaonidae). Journal of Natural History 46: 621-635. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00222933.2011.651641 

Frank S.A., 1989. Ecological and evolutionary dynamics of fig communities. Experientia, 45: 674-680.

Frank SA. 1984. The behavior and morphology of the fig wasps Pegoscapus assuetus and P. jimenezi: descriptions and suggested behavioral characters for phylogenetic studies. Psyche 91:289– 308.

Frank SA. 1985. Are mating and mate competition by the fig wasp Pegoscapus assuetus (Agaonidae) random within a fig? Biotropica 17:170–172.

Frank SA. 1985. Hierarchical selection theory and sex ratios. II. On applying the theory, and a test with figwasps. Evolution 39:949–964.

Frankie, G. W., Baker, H. G. & Opler, P. A. 1974. Comparitive Phenological Studies Of Trees In Tropical Wet And Dry Forests In The Lowlands Of Costa Rica. Journal Of Ecology 62, 881-919.

Friis, I. 1990. Distribution patterns of Ficus in tropical N.E. Africa. Mitt. Inst. Allg. Bot. Hamburg 23: 407-424.

Frith, H. J. 1957) Food Habits Of The Topknot Pigeon. Emu 57, 341-345.

Frith, H. J. 1982. Pigeons And Doves Of Australia. Rigby, Melbourne, Australia.

Frith, H. J., Mckean, J. L. & Braithwaite, L. W. 1976a. Sexual Cycles And Food Of The Doves Streptopelia Chinensis And Streptopelia Senegalensis In Australia. Emu 76, 15-24.

Frith, H. J., Wolfe, T. O. & Barker, R. D. 1976b. Food Of Eight Species Of Columbidae, In The Genera Geopelia, Phaps, Geophaps And Petrophassa. Australian Wildlife Research 3, 159-171.  

Froggatt, W.W. 1900. Insects living in figs, with some account on caprification. Agricultural Gazette of New South Wales 11, 447-456.

Frost, P. G. H. 1988. Fruit-Frugivore Interactions In A South African Coastal Dune Forest. Acta Xvii Congressus Internationalis Ornithologi 3, 1179-1184.

Fuentes, A. 1996. Feeding And Ranging In The Mentawai Island Langur (Presbytis Potenziani. International Journal Of Primatology 17, 525-548.

Fujita, M. S. & Tuttle, M. D. 1991. Flying Foxes (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae): Threatened Animals Of Key Ecological And Economical Importance. Conservation Biology 5, 455-463.

Fullaway, D.T. 1913. Report on a collection of Hymenoptera made in Guam, Marianne Islands. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society. 2:282-290.

Fullaway, D.T. 1946. Insects of Guam - II. Hymenoptera, new species of Guam Chalcidoidea. Bulletin of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum. 189:201-210. 

Funakoshi, F., Watanabe, H. & Kunisaki, T. 1993. Feeding Ecology Of The Northen Ryukyu Fruit Bat, Pteropus Dasymallus, In A Warm-Temperate Region. Journal Of Zoology 230, 221-230.

Web authors Simon van Noort (Iziko South African Museum)

and Jean-Yves Rasplus (INRA, France)


Citation: van Noort, S. & Rasplus, JY. 2024. Figweb: figs and fig wasps of the world. URL: www.figweb.org(Accessed on <day-month-year>).

Copyright 2004-2024 Iziko Museums of South Africa

website statistics