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Ficus and fig wasp references


(Life; Embryophyta (plants); Angiospermae (flowering plants); Eudicotyledons; Order: Rosales; Family: Moraceae; Genus: Ficus)

This list has yet to become a comprehensive compilation. Ideally we would like to develop a resource that includes all publications dealing with any aspect of life associated with fig trees. Please send details of additional or missing publications to Simon van Noort.



























Tan, K. H., Zubaid, A. & Kunz, T. H. 1998. Food Habits Of Cynopterus Brachyotis (Muller) (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) In Peninsular Malaysia. Journal Of Tropical Ecology 14, 299-307.

Tarachai, Y, Compton, SG & Trisonthi, C. 2008. The benefits of pollination for a fig wasp. Symbiosis 45: 2932.

Tatara, M. & Doi, T. 1994. Comparative Analyses On Food Habits Of Japanese Marten, Siberian Weasel And Leopard Cat In The Tsushima Islands, Japan. Ecological Research 9, 99-107.

Tedman, R. A. & Hall, L. S. 1985. The Morphology Of The Gastrointestinal Tract And Food Transit Time In The Fruit Bats Pteropus Alecto And P. Poliocephalus (Megachiroptera. Australian Journal Of Zoology 33, 625-640.

Temme, M. 1979. Notes On The Violet-Backed Starling (Sturnus Philippensis) In Manila / Philippines. Ornithologische Mitteilungun Gottingen 31, 86-87.

Terborgh, J. & Diamond, J. M. 1970. Niche Overlap In Feeding Assemblages Of New Guinea Birds. The Wilson Bulletin 82, 29-52.

Terborgh, J. 1983. Five New World Primates. A Study In Comparative Ecology. Princeton University Press, New Jersey, Usa.

Terborgh, J. 1986. Keystone Plant Resources In The Tropical Forest. In Conservation Biology, The Science Of Scarcity And Diversity (Ed. M. E. Soule), Pp. 330-344. Sinauer, Sunderland, Ma, Usa.  

Thomson, C.G. 1878. Hymenoptera Scandinaviae 5. Pteromalus (Svederus)continuato. 307 pp, 1 plate. Lund 

Thomson, C.G. 1878. Hymenoptera Scadanaviae 5. Pteromalus Svederus continuatio. 307pp, 1 plate. Lund. Page 46.

Thomas, D. W. 1982. The Ecology Of An African Savanna Fruit Bat Community: Resource Partitioning And Role In Seed Dispersal. Ph.D. Thesis, University Of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, Uk.

Thompson, J.D.,  Herre, E. A. Hamrick, J. L. &  Stone J. L. 1991. Genetic mosaics in strangler fig trees: implications for tropical conservation. Science 254: 1214-1216

Thompson, W.R. 1953. A catalogue of the parasites and predators of insect pests. Section 2. Host parasite catalogue. Part 2.  Hosts of the Hymenoptera (Agaonidae to Braconidae). ii+190pp. Commonwealth Institute of Biological Control, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

Thompson, W.R. 1958. A catalogue of the parasites and predators of insect pests. Section 2. Host parasite catalogue, Part 5.  562-698. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Commonwealth Institute of Biological Control, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

Thornton, I.W.B., Compton, S.G. and Wilson, C.N. 1996. The role of animals in the colonization of the Krakatau Islands by fig trees (Ficus species). Journal of Biogeography 23: 577-592.  

Thornton, I.W.B., Cook, S., Edwards, J.S., Harrison, R.D., Schipper, C., Shanahan, M., Singadan, R. & Yamuna, R. 2001. Colonization of an island volcano, Long Island, Papua New Guinea, and an emergent island, Motmot, in its caldera lake. VII. Overview and discussion Journal of Biogeography 28: 1389-1408.

Tian, E., Nason, J. D., Machado, C. A., Zheng, L., Yu, H. and Kjellberg, F. 2015. Lack of genetic isolation by distance, similar genetic structuring but different demographic histories in a fig-pollinating wasp mutualism. Molecular Ecology 24: 59765991. doi:10.1111/mec.13438

Tigny, F.M.G.T. de. 1802. Histoire naturelle des Insectes.  3:335pp. Paris

Tinley, K. L. 1969. Dikdik, Madoqua Kirkii, In South-West Africa: Notes On Distribution, Ecology And Behaviour. Madoqua 1, 7-33.

Trail, P. 1994. The Phenology Of Rainforest Plants In Tutuila, American Samoa. Unpublished Manuscript. Department Of Marine And Wildlife Resources, American Samoa.

Traveset, A. & Willson, M. F. 1997. Effects Of Birds And Bears In Seed Germination Of Fleshy Fruited Plants In Temperate Rainforests Of Southeast Alaska. Oikos 80, 89-95.

Tsai, L., Hayakawa, H., Fukuda, T. and Yokoyama, J. 2015. A Breakdown of Obligate Mutualism on a Small Island: An Interspecific Hybridization between Closely Related Fig Species (Ficus pumila and Ficus thunbergii) in Western Japan. American Journal of Plant Sciences 6: 126-131. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ajps.2015.61014

Tsuji, A. 1996. Hornbills. Masters Of Tropical Forests. Sarakadee Press, Bangkok, Thailand.

Tutin, C. E. G., White, L. J. T., Williamson, E. A., Fernandez, M. & Mcpherson, G. 1994. List Of Plant Species Identified In The Northern Part Of The Lope Reserve, Gabon. Tropics 3, 249-276.

Tuttle, M. D. 1970. Distribution And Zoogeography Of Peruvian Bats, With Comments On Natural History. University Of Kansas Science Bulletin 49, 45-86.

Web authors Simon van Noort (Iziko South African Museum)

and Jean-Yves Rasplus (INRA, France)


Citation: van Noort, S. & Rasplus, JY. 2024. Figweb: figs and fig wasps of the world. URL: www.figweb.org(Accessed on <day-month-year>).

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