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Fig tree classification

(Life; Embryophyta (plants); Angiospermae (flowering plants); Eudicotyledons; Order: Rosales; Family: Moraceae)

Classification within the genus Ficus (after Berg 2003a, 2003b, 2003c, 2003d, 2003e; 2004a; 2004b, Berg & Corner, 2005, Dixon 2003, Ungricht et al. 2003, Rønsted et al. 2005, 2008a, 2008b).

An * indicates higher taxa for which species pages have been developed.


Berg, C.C. 1986. The Ficus species (Moraceae) of Madagascar and the Comore Islands. Bulletin du Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle d’Histoire Naturelle. Paris (4), 8: 17-55.

Berg, C.C. 1988. New taxa and combinations in Ficus (Moraceae) in Africa. Kew Bulletin 43: 77- 97.

Berg, C.C. 1989. Moraceae. In: R.M. Polhill (ed.) Flora of Tropical East Africa. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam.

Berg, C.C. 1990. Distribution of African taxa of Ficus (Moraccae). [Proc. 12th AETFAT]. Mitt. inst. Allg. Bot. Hamburg 23: 401-405.

Berg, C.C. 1990. Annotated check-list of the Ficus species of the African floristic region, with special reference and a key to the taxa of southern Africa. Kirkia, 13: 253-291.

Berg, C.C. 1991. Moraceae. In: E. Launert & G.Y. Pope (eds) Flora Zambesiaca 9, 6. Natural History Museum, London.

Berg, C.C. & Hijman, M.E.E. 1989. Chapter 11. Ficus. Flora of Tropical East Africa (ed. R.M. Polhill). 43-86. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam.

Berg, C.C.  & Corner, E.J.H. 2005. Moraceae - Ficus. Flora Malesiana Series I (Seed Plants) Volume 17/Part 2. National Herbarium of the Netherlands, Leiden.

Berg, C.C., Hijman, M.E.E. & Weerdenburg, J.C.A. 1984. Moracées (incl. Cécropiacées). Flore du Gabon 26: 1276.

Berg, C.C., Hijman, M.E.E. & Weerdenburg, J.C.A. 1985. Moracées (incl. Cécropiacées). Flore du Cameroun 28: 1298.

Berg, C.C. & Wiebes, J.T. 1992. African fig trees and fig wasps. Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen. Amsterdam, 1-298 pp.

Burrows, J. & Burrows, S. 2003. Figs of southern & south-central Africa. Umdaus Press, Hatfield. 379 pp.

Chantarasuwan B, Berg CC, van Welzen PC. 2013. A revision of Ficus subsection Urostigma (Moraceae). Syst Bot. 38: 653–686.

Chantarasuwan B, Baas P, van Heuven B- J, Baider C, van Welzen PC. 2014. Leaf anatomy of Ficus subsection Urostigma (Moraceae). Bot J Linn Soc. 175: 259–281.

Chantarasuwan B, Berg CC, Kjellberg F, Rønsted N, Garcia M, Baider C, van Welzen PC. 2015. A new classification of Ficus subsection Urostigma (Moraceae) based on four nuclear DNA markers (ITS, ETS, G3pdh, and ncpGS), morphology and leaf anatomy. PLoS ONE 10(6): e0128289. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0128289

Corner, E.J.H. 1965. Checklist of Ficus in Asia and Australasia with keys to identification. The Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore 21: 1-186.

Dixon, D.J. 1999. Figuring out the figs. Systematic studies in Ficus (Moraceae: Urostigma sect. Malvanthera). PhD thesis. Townesville, Australia: James Cook University.

Dixon, D.J. 2001a. A chequered history: the taxonomy of Ficus platypoda and F. leucotricha (Moraceae: Urostigma sect. Malvanthera) unravelled. Australian Systematic Botany 14, 535-563.

Dixon, D.J. 2001b. Ficus lilliputiana (Urostigma sect. Malvanthera) a new species from the Kimberley Region. Nuytsia 13, 457-464.

Dixon, D.J. 2001c. Figs, wasps, and species concepts: a reevaluation of the infraspecific taxa of Ficus macrophylla (Moraceae: Urostigma sect.Malvanthera) Australian Systematic Botany 14, 125-132.

Dixon, D.J. 2003. A taxonomic revision of the Australian Ficus species in the section Malvanthera (Ficus subg. Urostigma: Moraceae). Telopea 10, 125–153.

Dixon D.J. 2007. Ficus carpentariensis a new sandpaperfig for northern Australia and a revision of the F. opposita complex (Moraceae: Ficus subg. Ficus sect. Sycidium informal group F. copiosa). Nuytsia 16(2): 269-284.

Dixon, D.J., Jackes, B.R. & Bielig, L.M. 2001. Figuring out the figs: the Ficus obliqua–Ficus rubiginosa complex (Moraceae: Urostigma sect. Malvanthera) Australian Systematic Botany 14, 133-154.

Rønsted,  N., G. D. Weiblen, J. M. Cook, N. Salamin, C. A. Machado, V. Savolainen. 2005. 60 million years of co-divergence in the fig-wasp symbiosis. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B. 272, 2593-2599.

Rønsted,  N., Salvo, G., Savolainen, V., 2007. Biogeographical and phylogenetic origins of African fig species (Ficus section Galoglychia). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 43, 190201.

Rønsted, N., G. D. Weiblen, V. Savolainen, J. M. Cook. 2008. Phylogeny, biogeography, and ecology of Ficus section Malvanthera (Moraceae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 48: 12-22.
Rønsted, N., G. D. Weiblen, W. Clement, N. Zerega, V. Savolainen. 2008.
Reconstructing the phylogeny of figs (Ficus, Moraceae) to unravel the origin of fig-wasp mutualisms. Symbiosis 45: 45-56.

Ungricht, S., Rasplus, J.Y., Kjellberg, F. 2003. Nomenclature of the endemic monoecious fig trees (Moraceae: Ficus L.) of New Caledonia and Vanuata (Pacific Ocean). Taxon 52: 319-325.

Web authors Simon van Noort (Iziko South African Museum)

and Jean-Yves Rasplus (INRA, France)


Citation: van Noort, S. & Rasplus, JY. 2024. Figweb: figs and fig wasps of the world. URL: www.figweb.org(Accessed on <day-month-year>).

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