HomeFigsFig waspsBiologyFig classificationWasp classificationWaspWebBiodiversity Explorer


Ficus and fig wasp references


(Life; Embryophyta (plants); Angiospermae (flowering plants); Eudicotyledons; Order: Rosales; Family: Moraceae; Genus: Ficus)

This list has yet to become a comprehensive compilation. Ideally we would like to develop a resource that includes all publications dealing with any aspect of life associated with fig trees. Please send details of additional or missing publications to Simon van Noort.



























Pagliano, G. & Scaramozzino, P. 1990. Elenco dei generi di Hymenoptera del mondo. Memorie della Societá Entomologica Italiana. 68:3-210.

Palmeirim, J. M., Gorchov, D. L. & Stoleson, S. 1989. Trophic Structure Of A Neotropical Frugivore Community: Is There Competition Between Birds And Bats? Oecologia 79, 403-411.

Palmer, C., Price, O. & Bach, C. 2000. Foraging Ecology Of The Black Flying Fox (Pteropus Alecto) In The Seasonal Tropics Of The Northern Territory, Australia. Wildlife Research 27, 169-178.

Palombit, R. A. 1997. Inter- And Intraspecific Variation In The Diets Of Sympatric Siamang (Hylobates Syndactylus) And Lar Gibbons (Hylobates Lar. Folia Primatologica 68, 321-337.

Parrish, T.L., Koelewijn, H.P., van Dijk, P.J. 2003. Genetic evidence for natural hybridization between species of dioecious Ficus on island populations. Biotropica 35: 333–343.

Paschoal, M. & Galetti, M. 1995. Seasonal Food Use By The Neotropical Ground Squirrel Sciurus Ingrami In Southeastern Brazil. Biotropica 27, 268-273.

Patel, A. 1996. Variation In A Mutualism: Phenology And The Maintenance Gynodioecy In Two Indian Fig Species. Journal Of Ecology 84, 667-680.

Patel, A. 1997. Phenological Patterns Of Ficus In Relation To Other Forest Trees In Southern India. Journal Of Tropical Ecology, 13, 681-695.

Patel, A. 1998. Wasp composition in inflorescences of two dioecious fig species - implications for the fig-wasp mutualism. Biotropica. 30(3):474-480.

Patel, A. & McKey, D. 1998. Sexual specialization in two tropical dioecious figs. Oecologia. 115(3):391-400.  

Patel, A.; Hossaert-McKey, M. & McKey, D. 1993. Ficus-pollinator reserch in India: past, present and future. Current Science. 65(3):243-253.

Patel A., M.C. Anstett, M. Hossaert-McKey & F. Kjellberg, 1995. Pollinators entering female dioecious figs: why commit suicide? Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 8: 301-313.

Patel, A. & M. Hossaert-McKey 2000. Components of reproductive success in two dioecious fig species, Ficus exasperata and Ficus hispida. Ecology, 81: 2850–2866.

Patino, S., Herre, E.A. & Tyree, M.T. 1994. Physiological determinants of Ficus fruit temperature and implications for survival of pollinator wasp species: comparative physiology through an energy budget approach. Oecologia 100:13–20.

Patton, W.H. 1884. Some notes on the classification and synonymy of fig-insects. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of London. 1884:xiv-xvii.

Payne, J. B. 1979. Synecology Of Malayan Tree Squirrels With Special Reference To The Genus Ratufa. Ph.D. Thesis, Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK.

Peck, O. 1951. Superfamily Chalcidoidea. (In: Muesebeck, C.F.W., Krombein, K.V. & Townes, H.K. (Editors). Hymenoptera of America north of Mexico - synoptic catalog.) Agriculture Monographs. U.S. Department of Agriculture. 2:410-594.

Peck, O. 1963. A catalogue of the Nearctic Chalcidoidea (Insecta; Hymenoptera). Canadian Entomologist (Supplement). 30:1-1092.

Pellmyr, O., Huth, C.J. 1994. Evolutionary stability of mutualism between yuccas and yucca moths. Nature 372: 257–260.

Pellmyr, O., Leebens-Mack, J. & Huth, C.J. 1996. Non-mutualistic yucca moths and their evolutionary consequences. Nature 380:155–156.

Peñalver E.,Engel, M.S. & Grimaldi, D.A. 2006. Fig wasps in Dominican amber (Hymenoptera, Agaonidae). American Museum Novitates 3541: 1-16.

Peng, Y-Q, Duan, Z-B, Yang, D-R. & Rasplus, JY. 2008. Co-occurrence of two Eupristina species on Ficus altissima in Xishuangbanna, SW China. Symbiosis 45: 9–14.

Peng, Y-Q, Yang, D-R. & Wang, Q-Y. 2005. Quantitative tests of interactions between pollinating and nonpollinating fig wasps on dioecious Ficus hispida. Ecol. Entomol. 30: 70–77

Pereira, R.A.S. 2005. Lutas fatais dentro do figo. Ciência Hoje 36: 66-69.

Pereira, R.A.S. 2005. Trabalhos sobre Ficus (Moraceae) desenvolvidos no Brasil. Albertoa (Urticales) 2005: 157-164.


Pereira, R.A.S. 2006. Interações antagonísticas de figueiras e psitacídeos. Natureza on line 4: 25-29.


Pereira R.A.S. & Carauta J.P.P. 2003. Ficus tomentella (Moraceae), the host of Pegoscapus lopesi (Hymenoptera, Agaonidae). Albertoa (Urticales) 2003, 81-83.


Pereira, R.A.S. & Prado, A.P. 2005. Non-pollinating wasps distort the sex ratio of pollinating fig wasps. Oikos 110: 613-619.


Pereira, R.A.S. & Prado, A.P. 2005. Recognition of competitive asymmetries reduces the severity of fighting in male Idarnes fig wasps. Animal Behaviour 70: 249-256.


Pereira R.A.S.& Prado A.P. 2006. Effect of local mate competition on fig wasp sex ratios. Brazilian Journal of Biology 66, 603-610.

Pereira R.A.S., Prado A.P. & Kjellberg F. 2003. Gynandromorphism in pollinating fig wasps (Hymenoptera: Agaonidae). Entomological News 114: 152-155. 

Pereira, R.A.S., Rodrigues, E. & Menezes Jr, A. O. 2007. Phenological patterns of Ficus citrifolia (Moraceae) in a seasonal humid-subtropical region in Southern Brazil. Plant Ecology 188: 265-275.

Pereira R.A.S., Semir J. & Menezes Jr A.O. 2000. Pollination and other biotic interactions in figs of Ficus eximia Schott (Moraceae). Brazilian Journal of Botany 23, 217-224.

Pereira, RAS, Teixeira, SDP & Kjellberg, F. 2007. An inquiline fig wasp using seeds as a resource for small male production: a potential first step for the evolution of new feeding habits? Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 92: 9–17.

Peres, C. A. 1993. Diet And Feeding Ecology Of Saddle-Back (Saguinus Fuscicollis) And Moustached (Saguinus Mystax) Tamarins In An Amazonian Terra Firme Forest. Journal Of Zoology 230, 567-592.

Peters, C. R., O'brien, E. M. & Drummond, R. B. 1992. Edible Wild Plants Of Sub-Saharan Africa. Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew, London, Uk.

Phillips, J. F. V. 1928. Turacos Corythaix Corythaix ("Lourie") In The Knysna Forests. South African Journal Of Science 25, 295-299.

Pienaar, J. & Greeff, J.M. 2003. Male dimorphic Otitesella pseudoserrata fig wasps have equal fitness but are not genetically discrete. Ecology Letters 6, 286-289.

Pienaar, J. & Greeff, J.M. 2003. Maternal control of sex and male morphology in the Otitesella fig wasps. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 16, 244-253.

Poinar, G.O. jr. 1979. Parasitodiplogaster sycophilon gen.n., sp.n. (Diplogasteridae: Nematoda), a parasite of Elisabethiella stuckenbergi (Agaonidae: Hymenoptera) in Rhodesia. Proceedings. Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, Amsterdam (C). 82:375-381.

Poinar, G.O. 1993. Insects in amber. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 46:145–59 130.

Poinar, G.O. jr & Herre, E.A. 1991. Speciation and adaptive radiation in the fig wasp nematode, Parasitodiplogaster in Panama. Revue de Nematologie. 14(3):361-374.

Poonswad, P., Chuailua, P., Plongmai, K. & Nakkuntod, S. 1998a. Phenology Of Some Ficus Species And Utilisation Of Ficus Sources In Khao Yai National Park, Thailand. In The Asian Hornbills: Ecology And Conservation (Ed. P. Poonswad), Pp. 227-252. Biodiversity Research And Training Program, National Center For Genetic Engineering And Biotechnology, Bangkok, Thailand.

Poonswad, P., Tsuji, A. & Ngarmpongsai, C. 1988. A Comparative Ecological Study Of Four Sympatric Hornbills (Family Bucerotidae) In Thailand. Acta Xix Congressus Internationalis Ornithologi 2, 2781-2791.

Poonswad, P., Tsuji, A., Jirawatkavi, N. & Chimchome, V. 1998b. Some Aspects Of Food And Feeding Ecology Of Sympatric Hornbill Species In Khao Yai National Park, Thailand. In The Asian Hornbills: Ecology And Conservation (Ed. P. Poonswad), Pp. 137-153. Biodiversity Research And Training Program, National Center For Genetic Engineering And Biotechnology, Bangkok, Thailand.

Power, M. E., Tilman, D., Estes, J. A., Menge, B. A., Bond, W. J., Mills, L. S., Daily, G., Castilla, J. C., Lubchenco, J. & Paine, R. T. 1996. Challenges In The Quest For Keystones. Bioscience 46, 609-620.

Pratt, T. K. & Stiles, E. W. 1985. The Influence Of Fruit Size And Structure On The Compostion Of Frugivore Assemblages In New Guinea. Biotropica 17, 314-321.

Price, M. V. & Jenkins, S. H. 1986. Rodents As Seed Consumers And Dispersers. In Seed Dispersal (Ed. D. R. Murray), Pp. 191-235. Academic Press, Sydney, Australia.

Priyadarsanan, D.R. 1999. A new species of agaonid wasp (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea) pollinating Ficus krishnae C.D.C. (Moraceae). Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. 96(1):106-110.

Priyadarsanan, D.R. 2000. Fig insects of Kerala. Records of the Zoological Survey of India, Occasional Paper. No 182:iv+175pp.

Priyadarsanan, D.R. & Abdurahiman, U.C. 1994. Two new species of fig wasps (Hymenoptera: Agaonidae) from Kerala, India. Entomon. 19(1,2):29-33.

Priyadarsanan, D.R. & Abdurahiman, U.C. 1994. Addendum to the paper: Two new species of fig wasps (Hymenoptera: Agaonidae) from Kerala  India. Entomon:19(3,4).

Priyadarsanan, D.R. & Abdurahiman, U.C. 1997. Descriptions of three new species of Platyscapa Motschoulsky (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea, Agaonidae) from India. Proceedings. Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, Amsterdam (C). 100(1-2):171-180.

Priyadarsanan, D.R. & Abdurahiman, U.C. 1997. Two new species of Agaonidae (Chalcidoidea: Hymenoptera) from Ficus mollis Vahl. (Moraceae). Entomon. 22(3-4):213-216.

Proctor, V. W. 1968. Long-Distance Dispersal Of Seeds By Retention In The Digestive Tract Of Birds. Science 160, 321-322.

Putz, F. E. & Appanah, S. 1987. Buried Seeds, Dispersed Seeds, And The Dynamics Of A Lowland Forest In Malaysia. Biotropica 19, 326-333.

Web authors Simon van Noort (Iziko South African Museum)

and Jean-Yves Rasplus (INRA, France)


Citation: van Noort, S. & Rasplus, JY. 2024. Figweb: figs and fig wasps of the world. URL: www.figweb.org(Accessed on <day-month-year>).

Copyright 2004-2024 Iziko Museums of South Africa

website statistics