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Ficus and fig wasp references


(Life; Embryophyta (plants); Angiospermae (flowering plants); Eudicotyledons; Order: Rosales; Family: Moraceae; Genus: Ficus)

This list has yet to become a comprehensive compilation. Ideally we would like to develop a resource that includes all publications dealing with any aspect of life associated with fig trees. Please send details of additional or missing publications to Simon van Noort.



























Lachaise D, Tsacas L, Couturier G. 1982. The Drosophilidae associated with tropical African figs. Evolution 36:141–151.

Lachaise D. 1977. Niche separation of African Lissocephala within the Ficus Drosophilid community. Oecologia 31:201–214.

Laman, T. and G. Weiblen. 1998. Figs of Gunung Palung National Park (West Kalimantan, Indonesia). Tropical Biodiversity 5, 245-297.

Laman, T. G. 1994. The Ecology Of Strangler Figs (Hemiepiphytic Ficus Spp.) In The Rain Forest Canopy Of Borneo. Ph.D. Thesis., Harvard University, Ann Arbor, Usa.

Laman, T. G. 1995. Ficus Stupenda Germination And Seedling Establishment In A Bornean Rain Forest Canopy. Ecology 76, 2617-2626.

Laman, T. G. 1996. The Impact Of Seed Harvesting Ants (Pheidole Sp. Nov) On Ficus Establishment In The Canopy. Biotropica 28:777-781.

Laman, T. G. 1997. Borneo's Strangler Fig Trees. National Geographic 191, 38-55.

Lambert, F. R. & Marshall, A. G. 1991. Keystone Characteristics Of Bird-Dispersed Ficus In A Malaysian Lowland Rain Forest. Journal Of Ecology 79, 793-809.

Lambert, F. R. 1987. Forest Fig Phenology And Avian Frugivores In Malaysia. Ph.D Thesis., University Of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, Uk.

Lambert, F. R. 1989a. Daily Ranging Behaviour Of Three Tropical Forest Frugivores. Forktail 4, 107-116.

Lambert, F. R. 1989b. Fig-Eating By Birds In A Malaysian Lowland Forest. Journal Of Tropical Ecology 5, 401-412.

Lambert, F. R. 1989c. Pigeons As Seed Predators And Dispersers Of Figs In A Malaysian Lowland Forest. Ibis 131, 521-527.

Lambert, F. R. 1990. Some Notes On Fig-Eating By Arboreal Mammals In Malaysia. Primates 31, 453-458.

Lambert, F. R. 1991. The Conservation Of Fig-Eating Birds In Malaysia. Biological Conservation 58, 31-40.

Lambert, F. R. 1992. Fig dimorphism in bird-dispersed gynodioecious Ficus. Biotropica 24:214–216.

Latreille, P.A. 1805. Histoire naturelle générale et particulière des Crustacés des Insectes.  13:432pp. Paris

Leighton, M. & Leighton, D. R. 1983. Vertebrate Responses To Fruiting Seasonality Within A Bornean Rain Forest. In Tropical Rain Forest: Ecology And Management (Ed. S. L. Sutton, T. C. Whitmore, And A. C. Chadwick), Pp. 181-196. Blackwell, Oxford, Uk.

Leighton, M. 1982. Fruit Resources And Patterns Of Feeding, Spacing And Grouping Among Sympatric Bornean Hornbills (Bucerotidae. Ph.D. Thesis, University Of California, Davis, Usa.

Leighton, M. 1993. Modelling Dietary Selectivity By Bornean Orangutans: Evidence For Integration Of Multiple Criteria In Fruit Selection. International Journal Of Primatology 14, 257-313.

Lepschi, B. J. 1997. Food Of Some Birds In Southern Australia: Additions To Barker And Vestjens. 2. Emu 97, 84-87.

LI, H.-Q., CHEN, J.-Y., WANG, S. and XIONG, S.-Z. 2012. Evaluation of six candidate DNA barcoding loci in Ficus (Moraceae) of China. Molecular Ecology Resources 12: 783–790. doi: 10.1111/j.1755-0998.2012.03147.x

Lieberman, D., Hall, J. B., Swaine, M. D. & Lieberman, M. 1979. Seed Dispersal By Baboons In The Shai Hills, Ghana. Ecology 60, 65-75.

Linnaeus, C. 1749. Amoenitates Academicae seu Dissertationes variae physicae, medicae, botanicae antehac seorsim editae nunc.  collectae et auctae cum tabulis aeneis. 563pp. Ed: Holmiae et Lipsiae

Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema naturae (10th Edition). 1:824+iiipp. Stockholm  

Linnaeus, C. 1762. Reise nach Palästina. 606pp. Rostock, Honne Ed: T.H. Gadebush Text in German.

Linnaeus, C. 1767. Systema naturae (Ed. 12a).  1(2):533-1327+38pp.

Liu, C., Yang, D.-R. & Peng, Y.-Q. 2011, Body size in a pollinating fig wasp and implications for stability in a fig-pollinator mutualism. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 138: 249–255. doi: 10.1111/j.1570-7458.2011.01096.x

Liu, M., Zhang, J., Chen, Y., Compton, S. G. and Chen, X.-Y. 2013. Contrasting genetic responses to population fragmentation in a coevolving fig and fig wasp across a mainland–island archipelago. Molecular Ecology 22: 4384–4396. doi: 10.1111/mec.12406

Lloyd, J. & Davies, K.A. 1997. Two new species of Schistonchus (Tylenchidae: Aphelenchoididae) associated with Ficus macrophylla from Australia. Fundamental and Applied Nematology. 20(1):79-86.

Loew, H. 1843. Uber die caprification der Feigen (Blastophaga grossorum Groh.). Stettiner Entomologische Zeitung. 4:66-77.

Loffler, L. & P. Loffler. 2005. Swaziland Tree Atlas. SABONET Report No. 35. 188 pp.

Long, M. E. 1999. The Shrinking World Of Hornbills. National Geographic 196, 52-71.

Lopez-Vaamonde C, Rasplus J-Y, Weiblen G, Cook JM. 2001. DNA-based phylogenies of fig wasps: partial cocladogenesis between pollinators and parasites. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 21: 55-71.

Lopez-Vaamonde, C., Dixon, D.J., Cook, J.M., Rasplus, J.-Y. 2002. Revision of the Australian species of Pleistodontes (Hymenoptera: Agaonidae) fig-pollinating wasps and their host-plant associations. Zool. J. Linn. Soc.136: 637–683.

Lopez-Vaamonde C, Wikstrom N, Kjer KM, Weiblen GD, Rasplus J-Y, Machado CA & Cook J. 2009. Molecular dating and biogeography of fig-pollinating wasps. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 52: 715-726.

Lo Verde, G.; Porcelli, F. and Sinacori, A. 1991. Presenza di Parapristina verticillata (Waterst.) e Odontofroggatia galili Wiebes (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea Agaonidae) in Sicilia. Atti Congresso Nazionale Italiano di Entomologia. 16:139-143. 

Lu, Bin; Nina Wang; Jinhua Xiao; Yongyu Xu; Robert W Murphy; Dawei Huang. 2009. Expression and evolutionary divergence of the non-conventional olfactory receptor in four species of fig wasp associated with one species of fig. BMC Evol. Biol. 9, 43.

Lu, F.Y.; Ou, C.H.; Liao, C.C. & Chen, M.A. 1987. Study of pollination ecology of climbing fig (Ficus pumila L.). Bull. Exp. For. Natl. Chung Hsing Univ. No 8:31-42.

Web authors Simon van Noort (Iziko South African Museum)

and Jean-Yves Rasplus (INRA, France)


Citation: van Noort, S. & Rasplus, JY. 2024. Figweb: figs and fig wasps of the world. URL: www.figweb.org(Accessed on <day-month-year>).

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