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Ficus and fig wasp references


(Life; Embryophyta (plants); Angiospermae (flowering plants); Eudicotyledons; Order: Rosales; Family: Moraceae; Genus: Ficus)

This list has yet to become a comprehensive compilation. Ideally we would like to develop a resource that includes all publications dealing with any aspect of life associated with fig trees. Please send details of additional or missing publications to Simon van Noort.



























D’Alessandro M, Turlings TCJ, 2005. In Situ Modification of Herbivore-Induced Plant Odors: A Novel Approach to Study the Attractiveness of Volatile Organic Compounds to Parasitic Wasps. Chemical Senses 30: 739-753.

Dahms, E.C. 1983. A checklist of the types of Australian Hymenoptera described by Alexandre Aresene Girault: II. Preamble and Chalcidoidea species A-E with advisory notes. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum. 21:1-255.

Dahms, E.C. 1984. A checklist of the types of Australian Hymenoptera described by Alexandre Arsene Girault: III. Chalcidoidea species F-M with advisory notes. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum. 21:579-842.

Dahms, E.C. 1986. A checklist of the types of Australian Hymenoptera described by Alexandre Arsene Girault: IV. Chalcidoidea species N-Z and genera with advisory notes plus addenda and corrigenda. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum. 22(3):319-739.  

Dalla Torre, K.W. van. 1897. Zur Nomenclatur der Chalchididen-Genera. Wiener Entomologische Zeitung. 16:83-88.

Dalla Torre, K.W. von. 1898. Catalogus Hymenopterorum hucusque descriptorum systematicus et synonymicus. V. Chalcididae et.  Proctotrupidae. 598pp. Lepzig

Dalman, J.W. 1818. Några nya Genera och Species af Insecter beskrifna. Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens Handlingar. 39:69-89.  

Dalman, J.W. 1820. Forsok till Uppstallning af Insect-familjen Pteromalini, i synnerhetmed afseen  de pa de i Sverige funne Arter. Kungliga Svenka Vetenskapakademiens Handlinger. 41(1):123-174, 177-182, tab vii-viii.

Dalman, J.W. 1825. Om Insekter inneslutne i Copal; jemte beskrifning på några deribland förekommande nya slägten och arter. Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens Handlingar.46:375-410., Tab.V.

Date, E. M., Ford, H. A. & Recher, H. F. 1991. Frugivorous Pigeons, Stepping Stones And Weeds In Northern New South Wales. In Nature Conservation 2. The Role Of Corridors (Ed. D. A. Saunders And R. J. Hobbs), Pp. 241-245. Surrey Beatty & Sons, Chipping Norton, New South Wales, Australia.  

Datwyler, S. L. & Weiblen, G.D. 2004. On the origin of the fig: phylogenetic relationships of Moraceae from ndhF sequences. American Journal of Botany 91: 767-777.

Davis, A.J. & Durden, L. 1994. Are fig-wasps hitch-hikers? Borneo Research Bulletin. 25:133-136.

Davis, A.J. & Durden, L.A. 1994. Are fig-wasps hitch-hikers? Entomologist's Monthly Magazine. 130(1560-1563):137-139.

Davis, A. J. & Sutton, S. L. 1997. A Dung Beetle That Feeds On Figs: Implications For The Measurement Of Species Rarity. Journal Of Tropical Ecology 13, 759-766.

Decker, B. S. 1989. Effects Of Habitat Distribution On The Behavioural Ecology And Demographics Of The Tana River Red Colobus (Colobus Badia Rufomitratus. Ph.D. Theis, Emory University, Atlanta, Usa.

Defigueiredo, R. A. 1993. Ingestion Of Ficus Enormis Seeds By Howler Monkeys Alouatta Fusca In Brazil: Effects On Seed Germination. Journal Of Tropical Ecology 9, 541-543.

Defigueiredo, R. A. 1996a. Complex Interactions In Nature: Parrotlet Feeding On Fig Fruits Lessens Seed Dispersal And Gene Flow. Ciencia E Cultura: Journal Of Brazilian Association For Advancement Of Science 48, 282-283.

Defigueiredo, R. A. 1996b. Vertebrates At Neotropical Fig Species In A Forest Fragment. Tropical Ecology 37, 139-141.

Defigueiredo, R. A., Motta Jr, J. C. & Vasconcellos, L. A. D. S. 1995. Pollination, Seed Dispersal, Seed Germination And Establishment Of Seedlings Of Ficus Microcarpa, Moraceae, In Southeastern Brazil. Revista Brasileira De Biologia 55, 233-239.

Defler, T. R. & Defler, S. B. 1996. Diet Of A Group Of Lagothrix Lagothricha Lagothricha In Southeastern Colombia. International Journal Of Primatology 17, 161-190.  

Delucchi, V. 1956. Pteromalidae et Eulophidae nouveaux d'Europe. Entomophaga. 1:65-75, 11figs.

Deng, J.Y., Fu, R.H., Compton, S.G., Hu, D.M., Zhang, L.S., Yang, F., Chen, Y. and Kjellberg, F. 2016. Extremely high proportions of male flowers and geographic variation in floral ratios within male figs of Ficus tikoua despite pollinators displaying active pollen collection. Ecology and Evolution  doi: 10.1002/ece3.1926

Dev, S. A., Kjellberg, F., Hossaert-McKey, M. and Borges, R. M. 2011. Fine-scale Population Genetic Structure of Two Dioecious Indian Keystone Species,Ficus hispida and Ficus exasperata(Moraceae). Biotropica, 43: 309–316. doi:10.1111/j.1744-7429.2010.00704.x

Dew, J. L. & Wright, P. 1998. Frugivory And Seed Dispersal By Four Species Of Primates In Madagascar's Eastern Rain Forest. Biotropica 30, 425-437.

De Santis, L. 1967. Catálogo de los Himenópteros Argentinos de la Serie Parasitica, incluyendo Bethyloidea.  337pp. Comision de Investigacion Cientifica, La Plata

De Santis, L. 1979. Catálogo de los himénopteros calcidoideos de América al sur de los Estados Unidos. Publicación Especial Comisión de Investigaciones Cientificas Provincia de Buenos Airies. 488pp.  

De Santis, L.; Gallego de Sureda, A.E. 1986. Una Subfamilia de calcidoideos nueva para La Republica Argentina (Insecta, Hymenoptera). Revista de Investigaciòn, Centro de Investigaciones para la Regulación de Poblaciones de Organismos Nocivos, Argentina 4:63-66.

De Santis, L. 1980. Catalogo de los Himenopteros Brasilenos de la serie Parasitica incluyendo Bethyloidea. Editora da Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba. 395pp.

De Santis, L. 1980. Nueva sinonimia, nueva combinacion y nuevas citas de Himenopteros Calcidoideos para La Republica Argentina (Insecta). Neotropica. 26(76):153-154,196.

De Santis, L. 1983. Catalogo de los Himenopteros Calcidoideos de America al Sur de los Estados Unidos - Primer Suplemento. Revista Peruana de Entomología. 24(1):1-38.

De Santis, L. 1989. Catalogo de los Himenopteros Calcidoides (Hymenoptera) al sur de los Estados Unidos, segundo suplemento. Catalogue of the Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera) of America south of the United States, second supplement. Acta Entomologica Chilena. 15:9-90.

De Santis, L. 1998. Chalcidoidea. Biodiversidad de artropodos argentinos: una perspectiva biotaxonomica. 408-426. Ediciones SUR, La Plata, Argentina Ed: Morrone, J.J.; Coscaron, S.

De Santis, L. & Fidalgo, P. 1994. Catalogo de Himenopteros Calcidoideos. Serie de la Academia Nacional de Agronomia y Veterinaria. 13:145pp.De Souza, P.P. 2002. Ficus (Moraceae): observações fenológicas de algumas espécies. Albertoa 9, 58-62.

Diaz, B.E. 2003. Hemi-epifitismo de Ficus (Subgênero Urostigma) no Brazil. Albertoa 12, 73-80.

Dinerstein, E. 1979. An Ecological Survey Of The Royal Karnali-Bardia Wildlife Reserve, Nepal. Part Ii. Habitat / Animal Interactions. Biological Conservation 16, 265-300.

Dinerstein, E. 1986. Reproductive Ecology Of Fruit Bats And The Seasonality Of Fruit Production In A Costa Rican Cloud Forest. Biotropica 18, 307-318.

Dinerstein, E. 1987. Deer, Plant Phenology, And Succession In The Lowland Forests Of Nepal. In Biology And Management Of The Cervidae (Ed. C. M. Wemmer), Pp. 272-288. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D. C., Usa.  

Dixon, D.J. 1999. Figuring out the figs. Systematic studies in Ficus (Moraceae: Urostigma sect. Malvanthera). PhD thesis. Townesville, Australia: James Cook University.

Dixon, D.J. 2001a. A chequered history: the taxonomy of Ficus platypoda and F. leucotricha (Moraceae: Urostigma sect. Malvanthera) unravelled. Australian Systematic Botany 14, 535-563.

Dixon, D.J. 2001b. Ficus lilliputiana (Urostigma sect. Malvanthera) a new species from the Kimberley Region. Nuytsia 13, 457-464.

Dixon, D.J. 2001c. Figs, wasps, and species concepts: a reevaluation of the infraspecific taxa of Ficus macrophylla (Moraceae: Urostigma sect.Malvanthera) Australian Systematic Botany 14, 125-132.

Dixon, D.J. 2003. A taxonomic revision of the Australian Ficus species in the section Malvanthera (Ficus subg. Urostigma: Moraceae). Telopea 10, 125–153.

Dixon D.J. 2007. Ficus carpentariensis a new sandpaperfig for northern Australia and a revision of the F. opposita complex (Moraceae: Ficus subg. Ficus sect. Sycidium informal group F. copiosa). Nuytsia 16(2): 269-284.

Dixon, D.J., Jackes, B.R. & Bielig, L.M. 2001. Figuring out the figs: the Ficus obliqua–Ficus rubiginosa complex (Moraceae: Urostigma sect. Malvanthera) Australian Systematic Botany 14, 133-154.

Docters Van Leeuwen, W. M. 1935. The Dispersal Of Plants By Fruit-Eating Bats. Gardens Bulletin, Straits Settlement 9, 58-63.

Dodd, A.P. 1924. Chalcidoidea and Proctotrupoidea from Lord Howe and Norfolk Islands, with descriptions of new genera and species. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia. 48:162-186

Dowsett-Lemaire, F. 1988. Fruit Choice And Seed Dissemination By Birds And Mammals In The Evergreen Forests Of Upland Malawi. Revue D'ecologie (La Terre Et La Vie) 43, 251-285.

Dowsett-Lemaire, F. 1990. Eco-Ethology, Distribution And Status Of Nyungwe Forest Birds (Rwanda. Tauraco Research Report 3, 31-85.

Dowsett-Lemaire, F. 1996. Avian Frugivore Assemblages At Three Small-Fruited Tree Species In The Forests Of Northern Congo. Ostrich 67, 88-89.

do Val AD, Souza CS, Ferreira EA, Salgado SM, Pasqual M, Cançado GM. 2013. Evaluation of genetic diversity in fig accessions by using microsatellite markers. Genet Mol Res. 12(2):1383-91. doi: 10.4238/2013.April.25.9

Dudley, J. P. 2000. Seed Dispersal By Elephants In Semiarid Woodland Habitats Of Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe. Biotropica 32, 556-561.  

Dumont, E. R., G. D. Weiblen, and J. R. Winklemann. 2004. Preferences of fig wasps and fruit bats for figs of functionally dioecious Ficus pungens. Journal of Tropical Ecology 20:233-238.

Dunn DW, Segar ST, Ridley J, Chan R, Crozier RH, et al. 2008. A role for parasites in stabilizing the fig-pollinator mutualism. PLoS Biol. 6:1–7.

Web authors Simon van Noort (Iziko South African Museum)

and Jean-Yves Rasplus (INRA, France)


Citation: van Noort, S. & Rasplus, JY. 2024. Figweb: figs and fig wasps of the world. URL: www.figweb.org(Accessed on <day-month-year>).

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