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Ficus and fig wasp references


(Life; Embryophyta (plants); Angiospermae (flowering plants); Eudicotyledons; Order: Rosales; Family: Moraceae; Genus: Ficus)

This list has yet to become a comprehensive compilation. Ideally we would like to develop a resource that includes all publications dealing with any aspect of life associated with fig trees. Please send details of additional or missing publications to Simon van Noort.



























Ma, W.L. & Wu, X. 1989. A preliminary study of symbioses between Blastophaga pumilae Hill (Hymenoptera) on Ficus pumila L. (Moraceae). Acta Ecologica Sinica. 9(1):9-14.

Ma, Y.C, Peng, Y.Q  & Yang, D.R. 2013. Description of two new species of Walkerella (Pteromalidae, Otitesellinae) from China with a key to species of the genus. Zootaxa 3702: 473–482.

Machado CA. 1998. Molecular natural history of fig wasps. PhD thesis. Univ. Calif., Irvine. 187 pp.

Machado C.A., E.A. Herre, S. McCafferty & E. Bermingham, 1996. Molecular phylogenies of fig pollinating and non-pollinating wasps and the implications for the origin and evolution of the fig-fig wasp mutualism. Journal of Biogeography, 23: 531-542.

Machado CA, Jousselin E, Kjellberg F, Compton SG, Herre EA. 2001. Phylogenetic relationships, historical biogeography and character evolution of fig pollinating wasps. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 268:685–694.

Machado, C. A., Robbins, N., Gilbert, M. P. T., Herre E. A. 2005. Critical review of host specificity and its coevolutionary implications in the fig/fig-wasp mutualism. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 102:6558-65.

Mack, A. L. & Wright, D. D. 1996. Notes On The Occurrence And Feeding Of Birds At Crater Mountain Biological Research Station, Papua New Guinea. Emu 96, 89-101.

Mack, A. L. & Wright, D. D. 1998. The Vulturine Parrot, Psittrichas Fulgidus, A Threatened New Guinea Endemic: Notes On Its Biology And Conservation. Bird Conservation International 8, 185-194.

Mani, M.S. 1938. Catalogue of Indian insects. Part 23 - Chalcidoidea.  ii+174pp. Delhi

Mani, M.S. 1989. The fauna of India and adjacent countries, Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera. Part I). Agaontidae, Torymidae,.  Leucospidae, Chalcididae, Eurytomidae, Perilampidae, Eucharitidae, Cleonymidae, Miscogasteridae, Pteromalidae, Eupelmidae and Encyrtidae. xlv+1067pp. Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta

Marcondes-Machado, L. O., Paranhos, S. J. &, De Melos Barros, Y. 1994. Estrategias Almentares De Aves Na Utilizacao De Frutos Fe Ficus Microcarpa (Moraceas) Em Uma Area Antropica. Iheringia 77, 57-62.

Marinho-Filho, J. S. 1991. The Coexistence Of Two Frugivorous Bat Species And The Phenology Of Their Food Plants In Brazil. Journal Of Tropical Ecology, 7, 59-67.

Marussich, W.A. & Machado, C.A. 2007. Host-specificity and coevolution among pollinating and nonpollinating New World fig wasps. Mol. Ecol. 16:1925–1946.

Marshall, A. G. 1985. Old World Phytophagous Bats (Megachiroptera) And Their Food Plants: A Survey. Zoological Journal Of The Linnean Society 83, 351-369.

Martinson, E.O., K. Charlotte Jandér, Yan-Qiong Peng, Huan-Huan Chen, Carlos A. Machado, A. Elizabeth Arnold, Edward Allen Herre. In press. Relative investment in egg load and poison sac in fig wasps: Implications for physiological mechanisms underlying seed and wasp production in figs. Acta Oecologica (2013) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actao.2013.07.009

Martins, M. M. & Setz, E. Z. F. 2000. Diet Of Buffy Tufted-Eared Marmosets (Callithrix Aurita) In A Forest Fragment In Southeastern Brazil. International Journal Of Primatology 21, 467-476.  

Masi, L. 1916. Materiali per una fauna dell'arcipelago toscana. xi. Chalcididi del Giglio. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova.47:54-122.

Masi, L. 1917. Chalcididae of the Seychelles islands. (With an appendix by J.J.Kieffer.) Novitates Zoologicae. 24:121-330.  

Masi, L. 1921. Chalcididae raccolte in Cirenaica dal Dott. V. Zanon. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale Giacomo Doria. Genova. 49:168-193, 7 figs.


Masi, L. 1921. Spolia hymenopteroloica. Annali de Museo Civico Storia Naturale Giacomo Doria. Genova.49:235-241.


Masi, L. 1938. Imenotteri Chalcididi. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova. 58:207-214.

Mason, C. W. & Maxwell-Lefroy, H. 1912. The Food Of Birds In India. Memoir Of The Department Of Agriculture, India 3, 1-137.

Matthes, D. 1991. Gallwespen bestauben Feigen. Mikrokosmos. 80(2):50-51.

Marussich W., Machado C. A. 2007. Host-specificity and coevolution among pollinating and non-pollinating New World fig wasps. Mol. Ecol. 16: 1925-1946.

Mawdsley, N. A., Compton, S. G., Whittaker, R. J. 1998. Population Persistence, Pollination Mutualisms, And Figs In Fragmented Tropical Landscapes. Conservation Biology 12, 1416-1420.

Mawdsley, N.A., Compton, S.G. and Whittaker, R.J. 1998. Population persistence, pollination mutualisms, and figs in fragmented tropical landscapes. Conservation Biology 12: 1416-1420.

Mayr, G. 1885. Feigeninsecten. Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 35, 147-250.  

Mayr, G. 1906. Neue Feigen-Insekten. Wiener Entomologische Zeitung 25:153-187. 

McCann, C. 1934. Notes On The Flying Fox (Pteropus Giganteus Brunn. Journal Of The Bombay Natural History Society 37, 143-149.

McClure, H. E. 1966. Flowering, Fruiting And Animals In The Canopy Of A Tropical Rain Forest. Malaysian Forester 29, 192-203.

McConkey, K. & Galetti, M. 1999. Seed Dispersal By The Sun Bear Helarctos Malayanus In Central Borneo. Journal Of Tropical Ecology 15, 237-241.

McConkey, K. R. 1999. Gibbons As Seed Dispersers In The Rain-Forests Of Central Borneo. Ph.D. Thesis, University Of Cambridge, Cambridge, Uk.

McDade, L. A., Bawa, K. S., Hespenheide, H. A., Hartshorn, G. S. 1994. La Selva: Ecology And Natural History Of A Neotropical Rain Forest. University Of Chicago Press, Chicago, Usa.

McFarland-Symington, M. 1988. Food Competition And Foraging Party Size In The Black Spider Monkey (Ateles Paniscus Chamek. Behaviour 105, 117-134.

McKey, D. 1975. The Ecology Of Coevolved Seed Dispersal Systems. In Coevolution Of Animals And Plants (Ed. L. E. Gilbert And P. H. Raven), Pp. 159-191. University Of Texas Press, Austin, USA.

McLeish, M.J., van Noort, S. & Tolley, K.A. 2010. Parasitoid fig-wasp evolutionary diversification and variation in ecological opportunity. Molecular Ecology 19: 1483-1496

McLeish, M.J., van Noort, S. & Tolley, K.A. 2010. African parasitoid fig wasp diversification is a function of host-fig range. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 57: 122-134.

Mcleish, M., Guo, D., van Noort, S. & Midgley, G. 2011. Life on the edge: rare and restricted episodes of a pan-tropical mutualism adapting to drier climates. New Phytologist 191: 210-222. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2011.03683.x

McLeish, M.J. & van Noort, S. 2012. Codivergence and multiple host species use by fig wasp populations of the Ficus pollination mutualism. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2012, 12:1 http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2148-12-1

McLeish, M.J., Beukman, G., van Noort, S., Wossler, T.C. 2012. Host-Plant Species Conservatism and Ecology of a Parasitoid Fig Wasp Genus (Chalcidoidea; Sycoryctinae; Arachonia). PLoS ONE 7(9): e44804. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044804

Mead, F.W. (Editor). 1986. Bureau of Entomology. Tri-ology, Technical Report, Division of Plant Industry, Florida. 25(7):1-3.

Medway, Lord. 1972. Phenology Of A Tropical Forest In Malaysia. Biological Journal Of The Linnean Society 4, 117-146.

Meijer, W. 1969. Fruit Trees In Sabah. Malayan Forester 32, 232-265.

Meislik, J. 2004. Ficus: The Exotic Bonsai. A guide to growing figs indoors, and using figs for bonsai. Pp.144. Devonshire Gardens Ltd. Whitefish, Montana USA.

Mello Filho, L.E. de, Jesus Neves, L. de, Carauta, J.P.P., & Diaz, B.E. 2001. Morfologia de Certos Sicônios de Ficus (Moraceae). Albertoa 3, 17-18.

Menon, S. A. 1993. Ecology And Conservation Of The Endangered Lion-Tailed Macaque (Macaca Silenus) In The Landscapes Mosaic Of The Western Ghats. Ph.D. Thesis, Ohio State University, Usa.

Moe, A. M. & Weiblen, G. D. 2012. Pollinator-mediated reproductive isolation among dioecious fig species (Ficus, Moraceae). Evolution 66: 3710-3721.

Merritt, P. G. 1980. Group Foraging By Mockingbirds In A Florida Strangler Fig. Auk 97, 869-872.

Michailides, T.J., & Morgan, D.P. 1994. Dynamics of Blastophaga psenes populations, availability of caprifigs, and fig endosepsis caused by Fusarium moniliforme. Phytopathology 84:1254–1263.

Michailides, T.J. & Morgan, D.P. 1998. Spread of endosepsis in calimyrma fig orchards. Phytopathology. 88(7):637-647.

Michailides, T.J. & Morgan, D.P. 1998. Spread of endopepsis disease caused by Fusarium moniliforme in Calimyrna fig orchards in California. Acta Horticulturae, Wageningen. No 408:179-185.

Michaloud G., S. Carrière & M. Kobbi, 1996. Exceptions to the one:one relationship between African fig trees and their fig wasp pollinators : possible evolutionary scenarios. Journal of Biogeography, 23: 513-520.  

Michaloud G., S. Michaloud-Pelletier, J.T. Wiebes & C.C. Berg, 1985. The co-occurrence of two pollinating species of fig wasp and one species of fig. Proceedings of the Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, C, 88: 93-119.

Mickleburgh, S. P., Hutson, A. M. & Racey, P. A. 1992. Old World Fruit Bats: An Action Plan For Their Conservation. Iucn, Gland, Switzerland.

Midya, S. & Brahmachary, R. L. 1991. The Effect Of Birds Upon The Germination Of Banyan (Ficus Bengalensis) Seeds. Journal Of Tropical Ecology 7, 537-538.

Milliken, W. & Ratter, J. A. 1998. Maraca: The Biodiversity And Environment Of An Amazonian Rainforest. John Wiley And Sons, Chichester, Uk.

Milton, K. & May, M. L. 1976. Body Weight, Diet And Home Range Area In Primates. Nature 259, 459-462.

Milton, K. 1980. The Foraging Strategy Of Howler Monkeys. Columbia University Press, New York, Usa.

Milton, K. 1981. Food Choice And Digestive Strategies Of Two Sympatric Primate Species. American Naturalist 117, 496-505.

Milton, K., Windsor, D. M., Morrison, D. W. & Estribi, M. 1982. Fruiting Phenologies Of Two Neotropical Ficus Species. Ecology 63, 752-762.

Mitchell, A. H. 1994. Ecology Of Hose's Langur, Presbytis Hosei, In Mixed Logged And Unlogged Dipterocarp Forest Of Northeast Borneo. Ph.D. Thesis, Yale University, New Haven, Usa.

Mkrtchyan, G.G. 1968. On the behaviour of fig wasps in north-eastern parts of the Armenian SSR. Biologicheskii Zhurnal Armenii. 21(6):71-77.   

Moe, A.M. & Weiblen, G.D. 2012. POLLINATOR-MEDIATED REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION AMONG DIOECIOUS FIG SPECIES (FICUS, MORACEAE). Evolution 1558-5646 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1558-5646.2012.01727.x

MOE, A. M., ROSSI, D. R. & WEIBLEN, G. D. 2011. Pollinator sharing in dioecious figs (Ficus: Moraceae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 103: 546–558. doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8312.2011.01669.x

Molbo, D., Krieger, M.J.B,  Herre, E.A.& L. Keller, L. 2002. Species-diagnostic microsatellite loci for the fig wasp genus Pegoscapus. Molecular Ecology Notes 2: 440-442.

Molbo, D., C.A. Machado, E. A. Herre, & L. Keller. 2004. Inbreeding and population structure in two pairs of cryptic fig wasp species. Molecular Ecology 13: 1613-23.

Molbo, D., C. A. Machado, J. G. Sevenster, L. Keller, & E. A. Herre, 2003. Cryptic species of fig-pollinating wasps: Implications for the evolution of the fig-wasp mutualism, sex allocation, and precision of adaptation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100: 5867-72.

Moll, D. & Jansen, K. P. 1995. Evidence For A Role In Seed Dispersal By Two Tropical Herbivorous Turtles. Biotropica 27, 121-127.

Mondolfi, E. 1989. Notes On The Distribution, Habitat, Food Habits, Status And Conservation Of Spectacled Bears (Tremarctos Ornatus Cuvier) In Venezuela. Mammalia 53, 525-544.

Moore, J. 1994. Plants Of The Tongue East Forest Reserve (Ugalla) Tanzania. Tropics 3, 333-340.

Moore, J.C., Pienaar, J. Greeff, J. M. 2004. Male morphological variation and the determinants of body size in two Otiteselline fig wasps. Behavioural Ecology15(5): 735-741.

Moore, J.C., Compton, S.G., Hatcher, M.J., Dunn, A.M. 2002. Quantitative tests of sex ratio models in a pollinating fig wasp. Animal Behaviour 64:23-32, 2002.

Moore, J.C., Dunn, A.M., Compton, S.G. & Hatcher, M.J. 2003. Foundress re-emergence and fig permeability in fig tree-wasp mutualisms. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 16: 1186-1195.

Moore, J.C. & Greeff, J.M. 2003. Resource defence in female pollinating fig wasps: two's a contest, three's a crowd. Animal Behaviour 66: 1101-1107.

Moore, J.C., Hatcher, M.J., Dunn, A.M. & Compton, S.G. 2003. Fig choice by the pollinator of gynodioecious fig: selection to rush, or intersexual mimicry? Oikos 101: 180-186.

Moore, J.C., Loggenberg, A., Greeff, J.M. 2006. Kin competition promotes dispersal in a male pollinating fig wasp. Biol. Lett. 2: 17–19

Morrison, D. W. 1978. Foraging Ecology And Energetics Of The Frugivorous Bat Artibeus Jamaicensis. Ecology 59, 716-723.

Moskovits, D. 1998. Population Ecology Of The Tortoises Geochelone Carbonaria And G. Denticulata On The Ilha De Maracà. In Maracà. The Biodiversity And Environment Of An Amazonian Rainforest (Ed. W. Milliken And J. A. Ratter), Pp. 263-284. John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Chichester, Uk.

Motschulsky, V. de. 1863. Essai d'un catalogue des insectes de l'Ile Ceylon (Suite). Byulleten' Moskovskogo Obshchestva Ispytateley Prirody (Otdel Biologicheskiy). 36(3):1-153.

Moutsambote, J-M., Yumoto, T., Mitani, M., Nishihara, T., Suzuki, S. & Kuroda, S. 1994. Vegetation And List Of Plant Species Identified In The Nouabale-Ndoki Forest, Congo. Tropics 3, 277-293.

Mturi, F. A. 1993. Ecology Of The Zanzibar Red Colobus Monkey, Colubus Badius Kirkii, In Comparison With Other Red Colobines. In Biogeography & Ecology Of The Rain Forests Of East Africa (Ed. J. C. Lovett And S. K. Wasser), Pp. 243-266. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, Uk.

Müller, F. 1886. Zur Kenntnis der Feigen-insecten. Entomologische Nachrichten. 12(13):193-199.

Müller, F. 1887. Zur Kenntnis der Fiegenwespen. Entomologische Nachrichten. 13:161-163.

Murray M.G., 1987. The closed environment of the fig receptacle and its influence on male conflict in the Old World fig wasp, Philotrypesis pilosa. Animal Behaviour, 35: 438-506.  

Murray MG. 1985. Figs (Ficus spp.) and fig wasps (Chalcidoidea, Agaonidae): hypotheses for an ancient symbiosis. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 26:69–81.

Murray, M.G. 1990. Comparative morphology and mate competition of flightless male fig wasps. Animal Behaviour. 39(3):434-443

Web authors Simon van Noort (Iziko South African Museum)

and Jean-Yves Rasplus (INRA, France)


Citation: van Noort, S. & Rasplus, JY. 2024. Figweb: figs and fig wasps of the world. URL: www.figweb.org(Accessed on <day-month-year>).

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