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Ficus and fig wasp references


(Life; Embryophyta (plants); Angiospermae (flowering plants); Eudicotyledons; Order: Rosales; Family: Moraceae; Genus: Ficus)

This list has yet to become a comprehensive compilation. Ideally we would like to develop a resource that includes all publications dealing with any aspect of life associated with fig trees. Please send details of additional or missing publications to Simon van Noort.



























Salas, L. A. & Fuller, T. K. 1996. Diet Of The Lowland Tapir (Tapirus Terrestris L.) In The Tabaro Valley, Southern Venezuela. Canadian Journal Of Zoology 74, 1444-1451.

Sánchez-Cordero, V. & Martinez-Gallardo, R. 1998. Postdispersal Fruit And Seed Removal By Forest-Dwelling Rodents In A Lowland Rainforest In Mexico. Journal Of Tropical Ecology 14, 139-151.

Santamaria, M. & Franco, A. M. 2000. Frugivory Of Salvin's Currasow In A Rainforest Fragment Of The Colombian Amazon. Wilson Bulletin 112, 473-481.

Saunders, S.S. 1879. On the habits and affinities of Apocrypta and Sycoohaga of the Hymenopterous family Agaonidae, with a description of a new species of Apocrypta from the figs of Ficus sycomori of Egypt. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London. 1878:313-320.

Saunders, S.S. 1882. Error as to fig-insect from Ficus religiosa. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine. 19:163-164.

Saunders, S.S. 1883. Descriptions of 3 new genera and species of fig insects allied to Blastophaga, from Calcutta, Australia, and Madagascar, with notes on their parasites and on the affinities of the respective races. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London. 1883:1-27, plt i-iii.

Saunders, S.S. 1883. On the Cynips caricae of Hasselquist, and other fig insects allied thereto, with description of a new species from Australia. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London. 1883:383-392, plt xviii.

Saunders, S.S. 1884. Exhibitions. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of London. 1883:xxxi-xxxii.

Schipper, C., Shanahan, M., Cook, S. & Thornton, I. W. B. (In Press. Colonisation Of An Exploded Island, Long I, Papua New Guinea, And An Emergent Island, Motmot, In Its Caldera Lake. Iii. Birds. Journal Of Biogeography

Schmiedeknecht, O. 1909. Hymenoptera fam. Chalcididae. Genera Insectorum. 97:1-550. Brussels Ed: Wytsman, P.

Schulz, J. 1999. Fruit-Eating Birds And Mammals Of Pacific Islands. Unpublished B.Sc. Thesis, University Of Leeds, Leeds, Uk.

Schulz, W.A. 1906. Spolia Hymenopterologica.  355pp. Paderborn

Schupp, E. W. 1993. Quantity, Quality And The Effectiveness Of Seed Dispersal By Animals. Vegetatio 107/108, 15-29.

Scott, E. & Martin, R. F. 1984. Avian Consumers Of Bursera, Ficus And Ehretia Fruits In Yucatan. Biotropica 16, 319-323.  

Segar, S.T. and Cook, J.M. 2012. The dominant exploiters of the fig/pollinator mutualism vary across continents, but their costs fall consistently on the male reproductive function of figs. Ecological Entomology, 37: 342–349. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2311.2012.01370.x

Segar ST, Lopez-Vaamonde C, Rasplus J-Y, Cook JM. 2012. The global phylogeny of the subfamily Sycoryctinae (Pteromalidae): Parasites of an obligate mutualism. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 65: 116-125. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2012.05.030 PubMed: 22683561.

Seltzer, C.E., Ndangalasi, H.J. & Cordeiro, N.J. 2013. Seed Dispersal in the Dark: Shedding Light on the Role of Fruit Bats in Africa. Biotropica 45: 450–456. doi: 10.1111/btp.12029

Serrato, A., Ibarra-Manriquez, G. & Oyama, K. 2004. Biogeography and conservation of the genus Ficus (Moraceae) in Mexico. Journal of Biogeography 31, 475-485.

Setshogo, M.P. 2005. Preliminary checklist of the plants of Botswana. Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No 37. SABONET, Pretoria and Gaberone.

Shanahan, M. 2000. Ficus Seed Dispersal Guilds: Ecology, Evolution And Conservation Implications. Ph.D. Thesis. University Of Leeds, Uk.

Shanahan, M. and Compton, S.G. 2000. Fig-eating by Bornean tree shrews (Tupaia spp.): Evidence for a role as seed dispersers. Biotropica 32: 759-64.

Shanahan, M. and Compton, S.G. 2001. Vertical stratification of figs and fig-eaters in a Bornean lowland rain forest: how is the canopy different? Plant Ecology 153: 121-32.

Shanahan, M., So, S., Compton, S.G. and Corlett, R. 2001. Fig-eating by vertebrate frugivores: a global review. Biol. Rev. 76: 529-72.

Shanahan, M., Harrison, R. D., Yamuna, R., Boen, W. & Thornton, I .W. B. 2001. Colonization of an island volcano, Long Island, Papua New Guinea, and an emergent island, Motmot, in its caldera lake. V. Colonization by figs (Ficus spp.), their dispersers and pollinators. Journal Of Biogeography 28: 1365-1377.

Shilton, L. A. 1999. Seed Dispersal By Fruit Bats On The Krakatau Islands, Indonesia. Ph.D. Thesis, University Of Leeds, Leeds, Uk.

Shilton, L. A., Altringham, J. D., Compton, S. G. & Whittaker, R. J. 1999. Old World Fruit Bats Can Be Long-Distance Seed Dispersers Through Extended Retention Of Viable Seeds In The Gut. Proceedings Of The Royal Society Of London Series B 266, 219-233.

Shilton, L.A., Altringham, J.D., Compton, S.G. and Whittaker, R.J. 1999. Old World fruit bats can be long-distance seed dispersers through extended retention of viable seeds in the gut. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. B-Biol. Sci. 266: 219-223.

Shoemaker D. D., Machado C. A., Molbo D., Werren J. H., Windsor, D. M., Herre E. A. (2002) The Distribution of Wolbachia in fig wasps: correlation with host phylogeny, ecology and population structure. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London: Series B, Biological Sciences 269: 2257-2267

Silvieus, SI, Clement, WL & Weiblen, GD. 2007. Cophylogeny of figs, pollinators, gallers and parasitoids. In Specialization, Speciation, and Radiation: The Evolutionary Biology of Herbivorous Insects, ed. KJ Tilmon, pp. 225–39. Berkeley: Univ. Calif. Press.

Sisson, R.F. 1970. The wasp that plays cupid to a fig. National Geographic. 138(5):690-697, 12 pls.

Smith, C. C. 1977. Feeding Behaviour And Social Organisation In Howling Monkeys. In Primate Ecology: Studies Of Feeding And Ranging Behaviour In Lemurs, Monkeys And Apes (Ed. T. H. Clutton-Brock), Pp. 97-126.. Academic Press, London, Uk.

Smith, D. S. & Hood, C. S. 1981. Preliminary Notes On Bats From The Bismarck Archipelago (Mammalia: Chiroptera. Science In New Guinea 8, 81-121.

Snow, B. K. & Snow, D. W. 1971. The Feeding Ecology Of Tanagers And Honeycreepers In Trinidad. Auk 88, 291-322.

Snow, D. W. 1980. Regional Differences Between Tropical Floras And The Evolution Of Frugivory. Acta Xvii Congressus Internationalis Ornithologi 1, 1185-1191.

So, N. H. S. 1999. Birds And Figs In Hong Kong. M. Phil Thesis. The University Of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.

Solorzano, S., Castillo, S., Valverde, T. & Avila, L. 2000. Quetzal Abundance In Relation To Fruit Availability In A Cloud Forest In Southeastern Mexico. Biotropica 32, 523-532.

Southwick, C. H., Beg, M. A. & Siddiqi, M. R. 1965. Rhesus Monkeys In North India. In Primate Behaviour. Field Studies Of Monkeys And Apes (Ed. I. Devore), Pp. 111-159

Spencer, H. J. & Fleming, T. H. 1989. Roosting And Foraging Behaviour Of The Queensland Tube-Nosed Bat, Nyctimene Robinsoni (Pteropodidae): Preliminary Radio-Tracking Observations. Australian Wildlife Research 16, 413-420.

Spencer, H., G. Weiblen and B. Flick. 1996. Phenology of Ficus variegata in a seasonal wet tropical forest at Cape Tribulation, Australia. Journal of Biogeography 23, 467-476.

Spencer, H., Weiblen, G. & Flick, B. 1996. Phenology Of Ficus Variegata In A Seasonal Wet Tropical Forest At Cape Tribulation, Australia. Journal Of Biogeography 23, 467-475.  

Spinola, M. 1811. Essai d'une nouvelle classification générale des Diplolépaires. Annales du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturalle. Paris.17:138-152.

Srikosamatara, S. 1984. Ecology Of Pileated Gibbons In South-East Thailand. In The Lesser Apes. Evolutionary And Behavioural Biology (Ed. H. Preuschoft, D. J. Chivers, W. Y. Brockelman And N. Creel), Pp. 242-257. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, Uk.

Staddon, S. 2000. Seed Dispersal In The Pacific Banyan Ficus Prolixa: The Effectiveness Of Frugivores As Dispersal Agents And The Importance Of Seed Disperser Mutualisms. M.Sc. Thesis, Leeds, Uk.

Stange, L.A. & Knight, R.J. jr. 1987. Fig pollinating wasps of Florida (Hymenoptera: Agaonidae). Entomology Circular, Division of Primary Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. No 296:4pp.  

Steffan, J.R. & Andriescu, I. 1962. Un nouveau genre de torymide paléarctique (Hym. Torymidae). Analele Stiintifice de Universitatii A1.I.Cuza. din Iasi.8(2):225-231.

Stevenson, P. R. 1968. Observations sur Chalcedectus sinaiticus (Ms.) et descriptions de C. balachowskyi sp.n. (Hym. Chalcedtidae) et d'Oopristus safavii gen.n., sp.n. (Hym. Torymidae), deux parasites d'importance économique en Iran. Entomophaga.13(3):209-216.

Stevenson, P. R., Quinones, M. J. & Ahumada, J. A. 1998. Annual Variation In Fruiting Pattern Using Two Different Methods In A Lowland Tropical Forest, Tinigua National Park, Colombia. Biotropica 30, 129-134.

Stevenson, P. R., Quinones, M. J., Ahumada, J. A. 2000. Influence Of Fruit Availability On Ecological Overlap Among Four Neotropical Primates At Tinigua National Park, Colombia. Biotropica 32, 533-544.

Stocker, G. C. & Irvine, A. K. 1983. Seed Dispersal By Cassowaries (Casuarius Casuarius) In North Queensland's Rainforest. Biotropica 15, 170-176.

Stones, W. & Roberts, H. R. 1935. Zoological Results Of The Mato Grosso Expedition To Brazil In 1931. Ii Birds. Proceedings Of The Academy Of Natural Sciences Of Philadelphia 86, 363-394.

Stott, K. 1947. Notes On The Philippine Brown Hornbill. Condor 49, 35.

Strand, E. 1911. Neue Arten der Chalcididengattungen Epistenia Westw., Aepocerus Mayr und Podagrion Spin. Archiv für Naturgeschichte. 77:153-159.  

Strand, E. 1911. Neue und weinig bekannte  exotiche Arten der Chalcididengattungen Megastigmus Dalm., Mesodiomorus Strand(n.g.) Polycromatium D.T. und Leucospis F. Weiner Entomologische Zeitung 30:93-99.

Strand, E. 1911. Sechzehn Novitäten der Gattung Stenopistha Strand und zwei neue Gattungsnamen in Chalcididae. Archiv für Naturgeschichte. 77:199-210.

Struhsaker, T. 1997. Ecology Of An African Rain Forest: Logging In Kibale And The Conflict Between Conservation And Exploitation. University Press Of Florida, Gainesville, Usa.  

Su, Z-H, Lino, H, Nakamura, K, Serrato, A & Oyama, K. 2008. Breakdown of the one-to-one rule in Mexican fig-wasp associations inferred by molecular phylogenetic analysis. Symbiosis 45: 73–82.


Subba Rao, B.R. 1981. Descriptions of new species of Pteromalidae from the Orient (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea). Proceeding of the Indian Academy of Sciences (Animal Science) 90:473-482.

Subramanya, S. & Prasad, J. N. 1994. Yellow-Throated Bulbul At Horsley Hills. Journal Of The Bombay Natural History Society 93, 55-58.

Sugiura, S. & Yamazaki, K. 2004. Moths boring into Ficus syconia on Iriomote Island, south-western Japan. Entomological Science 7: 113-118.

Suleman N, Raja S, Compton SG. 2012.Only pollinator fig wasps have males that collaborate to release their females from figs of an Asian fig tree. Biol Lett. 2012 Jun 23;8(3):344-6. doi: 10.1098/rsbl.2011.1016.

Suleman, N., Raja, S., Quinnell, R. J. & Compton, S. G. 2013. Putting your eggs in several baskets: oviposition in a wasp that walks between several figs. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. doi: 10.1111/eea.12108

Sun, B.F., Wang, R.W., Hu, Z. 2009. Ovipositing Pattern of the Fig Wasps and Its Effect on the Offspring Sex Ratio. Zoological Research 30(5): 559−564.

Sun, B.F., Wang, R.W., Hu, Z. 2008. Diet segregation of fig wasps and the stability of fig–fig wasp mutualism. Biodiversity Science. 29(4): 1-6.

Sun, B.F., Wang, R.W., Hu, Z, & Li, Y.T. 2008. The relation between two non-pollinating wasps oviposition and the fruit abscission on Ficus racemosa. Acta Ecologica Sinica. 29(4): 1-6.

Sun, C. & Moermond, T. C. 1997. Foraging Ecology Of Three Sympatric Turacos In A Montane Forest In Rwanda. The Auk 114, 396-404.

Sussman, R. W. 1975. A Preliminary Study Of The Behaviour And Ecology Of Lemur Fulvus Rufus Audebret 1860. In Lemur Biology (Ed. I. Tattersall And R. W. Sussman), Pp. 237-258. Plenum Press, New York, Usa.

Sussman, R. W. 1977. Feeding Behaviour Of Lemur Catta And Lemur Fulvus. In Primate Ecology: Studies Of Feeding And Ranging Behaviour In Lemurs, Monkeys And Apes (Ed. T. H. Clutton-Brock), Pp. 1-36. Academic Press, London, Uk.

Web authors Simon van Noort (Iziko South African Museum)

and Jean-Yves Rasplus (INRA, France)


Citation: van Noort, S. & Rasplus, JY. 2024. Figweb: figs and fig wasps of the world. URL: www.figweb.org(Accessed on <day-month-year>).

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