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Ficus and fig wasp references


(Life; Embryophyta (plants); Angiospermae (flowering plants); Eudicotyledons; Order: Rosales; Family: Moraceae; Genus: Ficus)

This list has yet to become a comprehensive compilation. Ideally we would like to develop a resource that includes all publications dealing with any aspect of life associated with fig trees. Please send details of additional or missing publications to Simon van Noort.



























Abbiw D.K., 1990. The traditional significance of Ficus in West Africa. Mitteilungen aus dem Institut für Allgemeine Botanik in Hamburg, 23: 395-400.

Abdurahiman, U.C. 1980. Observations on the oviposition behaviour in Philotrypesis pilosa Mayr (Torymidae: Hymenoptera). Proceedings of the All-India Symposium on Environmental Biology. 1977:146-150.

Abdurahiman, U.C. 1989. Biology of Philotrypesis pilosa Mayr (Torymidae: Hymenoptera). Bulletin of Entomology. Entomological Society of India. 27(2):121-127.

Abdurahiman, U.C. and Joseph, K.J. 1967. Contributions to our knowledge of fig insects (Chalcidoidea: parasitic Hymenoptera) from India. II. New fig insects from Delhi and correction of a mistaken identification. Bulletin of Entomology. Entomological Society of India. 8:48-57.

Abdurahiman, U.C. and Joseph, K.J. 1968. Contributions to our knowledge of fig-insects (Chalcidoidea: parasitic Hymenoptera) from India (new series): I. Notes on some new and interesting fig insects. Oriental Insects. 1(1/2):1-19.

Abdurahiman, U.C. and Joseph, K.J. 1975. New fig insects from India: three torymids parasitic on agaonids. Entomophaga. 20(1):73-80.

Abdurahiman, U.C. and Joseph, K.J. 1975. Three new Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera) from India. Oriental Insects. 9(1):99-109.

Abdurahiman, U.C. and Joseph, K.J. 1976. Observations on the biology and behaviour of Ceratoselen marchali Mayr (Agaonidae, Chalcidoidea, Hymenoptera). Entomon. 1(2):115-122.

Abdurahiman, U.C. and Joseph, K.J. 1976. Three new Torymidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) from Ficus arnottiana (Moraceae). Oriental Insects. 10(4):541-552.

Abdurahiman, U.C. and Joseph, K.J. 1978. Biology and behaviour of Apocrypta bakeri Joseph (Torymidae), cleptoparasite of Ceratosolen marchali Mayr (Agaonidae). Entomon. 3(1):31-36. 

Abdurahiman, U.C. and Joseph, K.J. 1978. Cleptoparasitism of the fig wasps (Torymidae: Chalcidoidea) in Ficus hispida L. Entomon. 3(2):181-186.

Abdurahiman, U.C. and Joseph, K.J. 1980. Observations on the oviposition behaviour in Apocrypta bakeri Joseph (Torymidae: Hymenoptera). Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. 76(2):219-223.

Addicott J.F., J. Bronstein & F. Kjellberg, 1990. Evolution of mutualistic life-cycles: yucca moths and fig wasps. In: Gilbert F. (Ed), Insect Life cycles: genetics, evolution and co-ordination. Springer, London.

Adler GH. 2000. Tropical tree diversity, forest structure and the demography of a frugivorous rodent, the spiny rat (Proechimys semispinosus). J. Zool. 250:57–74

Ahmed, S., Compton, S.G., Butlin, R.K. & Gilmartin, P.M. 2009. Wind-borne insects mediate directional pollen transfer between desert fig trees 160 kilometers apart. PNAS 106 (48): 20342-20347.

Alexander, J.C.M. 1989. Ficus. European Garden Flora 3: 90-101.

Al-Khalaf AA., van Noort S, Compton SG. 2018. Fig wasps and fig trees in Saudi Arabia. King Saud University Press, Riyadh, 75 pp. 

Alvarez N., McKey D., Kjellberg K. Hossaert-McKey M. 2010. Phylogeography and historical biogeography of obligate specific mutualisms. In: The Biogeography of Host-Parasite Interactions. Morand S, Krasnov BR, (Eds.), Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Ansari, M. 1966. On a new species of fig insects (Chalcidoidea: Hymenoptera) from India. Indian Journal of Entomology 28(1): 74-83.

Ansari, M.H. 1967. The process of egg laying in Idarninae (Chalcidoidea: Hymenoptera). Indian Journal of Entomology 29: 380-384. 

Ansari, M.H. 1977. Morphology of the male reproductive organs of two species of fig-wasps, Eukoebelea brevitarsus Grandi and Apocrypta westwoodi Grandi from India. Indian Journal of Zootomy. 16(3): 219-226.

Anstett M-C. 2001. Unbeatable strategy, constraints and coevolution, or how to resolve evolutionary conflicts: the case of the fig/wasp mutualism. Oikos 95:476–84

Anstett, M.C., Michaloud, G. & Kjellberg, F. 1995. Critical population size for fig/wasp mutualism in a seasonal environment: effect and evolution of the duration of female receptivity. Oecologia 103(4):453-461.

Anstett MC, Kjellberg F, & Bronstein JL.1996.Waiting for wasps: consequence for the pollination dynamics of Ficus pertusa.J. Biogeogr. 23:459–466.

Anstett MC, Bronstein JL, & Hossaert-McKey M. 1996. Resource allocation: a conflict in the fig/fig wasp mutualism? J.Evol. Biol. 9:417–428.

Anstett M.C., M. Hossaert-McKey & F. Kjellberg, 1997. Figs and fig pollinators: evolutionary conflicts in a coevolved mutualism. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 12(3): 94-99.

Anstett, M.C. & Hossaert McKey, M. 1997. Modeling the persistence of small populations of strongly interdependent species: figs and fig wasps. Conservation Biology 11(1):204-213.

Anstett MC, Gibernau M, & Hossaert-McKey M. 1998. Partial avoidance of female inflorescences of a dioecious fig by their mutualistic pollinating wasps. Proc.R. Soc. London Ser. B 265:45–50.

Archer, EM. 1994. Ethnobotany of Namaqualand: The Richtersveld. MSc thesis, University of Cape Town.

Aruna, R., Balasubramanian, P. & Radhakrishnan, P.  2009. Role of frugivorous birds in seed dispersal in the mixed dry deciduous forests of Attappady and Anaikatty, Western Ghats. Indian Forester 1308 – 1316.


Aruna, R. & Balasubramanian, P. 2011. Flowering and fruiting phenology of a tropical mixed dry deciduous forest in Anaikatty hills, Western Ghats. Indian Journal of forestry 34: 165-168.


Ashmead, W.H. 1899. On the genera of Eucharidae. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. 4:235-242.

Ashmead, W.H. 1900. Report upon the Aculeate Hymenoptera of the islands of St. Vincent and Grenada, with additions to the parasitic Hymenoptera and a list of the described Hymenoptera of the West Indies. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 33:207-367.  

Ashmead, W.H. 1900. Notes on some New Zealand and Australian parasatic Hymenoptera, with descriptions of new genera and species. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Whales 25:327-360.

Ashmead, W.H. 1904. Classification of the chalcid flies of the superfamily Chalcidoidea, with descriptions of new species in the Carnegie Museum, collected in South America by Herbert H. Smith. Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum. 1(4):i-xi,225-551,39pls.

Ashmead, W.H. 1904. New generic names in the Chalcidoidea. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. 6:126.  

Ashmead, W.H. 1904. On the discovery of fig-insects in the Philippines. Entomological News. 15(10):342.

Ashmead, W.H. 1905. New genera and species of Hymenoptera from the Philippines. Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 29(1424):397-413. 

Astle, W.L. Phiri, P.S.M. & Prince, S.D. 1997. A dictionary of the flowering plants and ferns of the South Luangwa National Park, Zambia. Kirkia 16, 2: 161-203.

Athreya, V. R. 1993. Fruiting Strangler Figs (Genus Ficus, Subgenus Urostigma) And Temporal Variation In Visitation Of Their Avian Frugivores In A Tropical Evergreen Forest In The Western Ghats, India. M.Sc. Thesis., Pondicherry University, Pondicherry, India.

Athreya, V. R. 1996. Are Ants Secondary Dispersers Of Fig Seeds In Indian Forests? Journal Of The Bombay Natural History Society 93, 595-596.

Athreya, V. R. 1997. Trees With A Difference: The Strangler Figs. Resonance 2, 67-74.

Aubreville, A. 1950. Les Moracees. Dans: Flore Foresliere Soudano-Guineenne. Societe d'f'.ditions Geographiqucs. Maritimes et Coloniales. Paris.

August, P. V. 1981. Fig Fruit Consumption And Seed Dispersal By Artibeus Jamaicensis In The Llanos Of Venezuela. Biotropica 13, 70-76.

Ayensu, E. S. 1974. Plant And Bat Interactions In West Africa. Annals Of The Missouri Botanical Garden 61, 702-727.

Ayensu. E.S. 1978. Medicinal Plants of West Africa. Reference Publications, Inc., Michigan.

Azuma, Hiroshi; Rhett D Harrison; Keiko Nakamura; Zhi-Hui Su. 2010. Molecular phylogenies of figs and fig-pollinating wasps in the Ryukyu and Bonin (Ogasawara) islands, Japan. Genes Genet. Syst. 85, 177.

Web authors Simon van Noort (Iziko South African Museum)

and Jean-Yves Rasplus (INRA, France)


Citation: van Noort, S. & Rasplus, JY. 2024. Figweb: figs and fig wasps of the world. URL: www.figweb.org(Accessed on <day-month-year>).

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