HomeFigsFig waspsBiologyFig classificationWasp classificationWaspWebBiodiversity Explorer

Systematics, evolution and biology of insects


Simon van Noort’s Research focuses on the systematics, evolution and biology of Hymenoptera from the Afrotropical region (Africa south of the Sahara, including Madagascar and surrounding islands). ResearchGate profile


PublicationsFig conferencesResearch labs


Contact details

Curator of Entomology
Natural History Department
Iziko South African Museum
PO Box 61, Cape Town, 8000
South Africa
Tel: +27 21 481 3865
Fax: +27 21 481 3993


Research Interests ResearchGate profile

Systematics of African Hymenoptera is a major focus. Currently I am working on the Chalcidoidea, Chrysidoidea, Cynipoidea, Ichneumonoidea, Megalyroidea, Platygastroidea, Proctotrupoidea and Symphyta, but the remaining groups are also a long-term focus. I have also worked on other insect groups such as the Heelwalkers (Mantophasmatodea). Elucidation of patterns of wasp species richness in a spatio-temporal context and development of bioinformatics resources for Afrotropical wasps is an ongoing passion of mine (www.waspweb.org). Fig wasps are a major interest, including unravelling the evolutionary intricacies of the 60 million year old mutualism between fig trees and fig wasps. We attempt to elucidate evolutionary processes, both at the macro and micro scale, through morphological and molecular phylogenetic reconstruction and phylogeographical analyses (www.figweb.org).

I am an avid field biologist, actively pursuing discovery and documentation of invertebrates. Field work in Africa has included expeditions to Mkomazi Game Reserve (Tanzania), Brandberg Massif (Namibia), Monts Doudou (Gabon), Dzangha-Sangha (Central African Republic), Kibale Forest (Uganda) and numerous excursions within southern Africa (Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia).

Afrotropical wasp diversity

A bioinformatics resource to facilitate the identification of wasps and to enable exploration of their diversity in the Afrotropical biogeographical region (Africa south of the Sahara and Madagascar and including smaller surrounding islands). Including E-typing (photographs of type specimens), identification keys, distributional and biological data.

Book on Afrotropical Hymenoptera

This first treatment of a regional order level fauna using state-of-the-art modern electronic technology will see the comprehensive coverage of 67 Hymenoptera families, incorporating approximately 2 000 genera and 20 000 species that occur in the Afrotropical region (Africa south of the Sahara; southern Arabian Peninsula; Madagascar and surrounding islands)

Fig trees and fig wasps

Biology and bioinformatics of a fascinating interaction.


Biology of an African gall wasp


VAN NOORT, S., STONE, G.N., WHITEHEAD, V.B. & NIEVES-ALDREY, J.L.  2007. Biology of Rhoophilus loewi (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea: Cynipidae), with implications for the evolution of inquilinism in gall wasps. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 90: 153-172.

Heelwalkers (Mantophasmatodea)

PICKER, M.D., COLVILLE, J.F. & VAN NOORT, S. 2002. Mantophasmatodea now in South Africa. Science 297: 1475.



Celso Azevedo (Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo). Bethylidae.

Gavin Broad (Natural History Museum, London). Ichneumonidae.

Matt Buffington (Systematic Entomology Laboratory, USDA/ARS). Cynipoidea.

Virgilio Caleca (Universita' di Palermo). Platygastridae.

Jonathan Colville (SANBI). Bees.

Stephen Compton (Leeds University). Fig wasp ecology.

Astrid Cruaud (INRA, France). NICE fig project – ecology and evolution of the fig and fig wasp mutualism.

Mattias Forshage (Swedish Museum of Natural History). Cynipoidea.

Jaco Greeff (University of Pretoria). Evolution of fig wasps.

Norm Johnson (Ohio State University). Platygastroidea NSF PBI project.

Emmanuelle Jousselin (INRA, France). NICE fig project – ecology and evolution of the fig and fig wasp mutualism.

Frank Koch (Museum für Naturkunde Berlin, Germany). Symphyta.

Conrad Matthee (University of Stellenbosch). Ichneumonidae.

Jose-Luis Nieves Aldrey (Spain). Cynipoidea, Ormyridae.

Massimo Olmi (University of Tuscia, Italy). Dryinidae, Embolemidae, Sceloggibidae.

Mike Picker (University of Cape Town). Alien Hymenoptera.

Jean-Yves Rasplus (INRA, France). NICE fig project – ecology and evolution of the fig and fig wasp mutualism.

Ilari Sääksjärvi (University of Turku). Ichneumonidae.

Mike Sharkey (University of Kentucky). Braconidae.

Scott Shaw (University of Wyoming). Megalyridae.

Graham Stone (University of Edinburgh). Cynipidae.

Krystal Tolley (SANBI, Kirstenbosch Research Center). Evolution of the fig and fig wasp mutualism.

Past students and post docs

Christoff Erasmus (MSc). Fig wasp phylogeny.

Philippa Huntly (MSc). Improving the conservation value of insects through ecotourism.

Jenny Underhill (MSc). Molecular phylogenetics and co-evolution of figs and fig wasps.

Frances van der Merwe (MSc). Fig wasp cuticular hydrocarbons.

Pierre-Olivier Maquart (MSc). Systematics and evolutionary assessment of Acaenitinae (Ichneumonidae; Hymenoptera).

Emmanuelle Jousselin (Post-doctoral fellow). Evolution and ecology of fig wasps.

Michael McLeish (Post-doctoral fellow). Molecular phylogenetics, co-evolution and ecology of figs and fig wasps.

Thomas Lado (Post-doctoral fellow). Diversity of indigenous parasitoids of arthropods associated with the gall-forming rust fungus Uromycladium tepperianum in South Africa.

Nyembezi Mgocheki (Post-doctoral fellow). Systematics and evolutionary assessment of Campopleginae(Ichneumonidae; Hymenoptera).

Natashia Muna (Post-doctoral fellow). Population genetics of endemic South African Ficus species and their associated fig wasp pollinators (Agaonidae, Hymenoptera).

Pascal Rousse (Post-doctoral fellow). Systematics and evolutionary assessment of Ophioninae, Ichneumoninae, Rhyssinae, Tryphoninae, Lycorininae, Cremastinae (Ichneumonidae; Hymenoptera).

Abraham Izak Pretorius (MSc). Systematics and evolutionary assessment of Eurytomidae (Chalcidoidea, Hymenoptera).

Candice Owen (PhD). Ecology, physiology and systematics of the intertidal spider parasitoid Echthrodesis lamorali (Platygastridae, Hymenoptera).

Mariette Brand (Post-doctoral fellow). Bee (Apoidea; Hymenoptera) diversity and species distribution in South African biomes.

Terry Reynolds Berry (PhD). Systematics of the parasitoid wasp subfamily Banchinae (Hymenoptera; Ichneumonidae) in the Afrotropical region.

Charlene Janion-Scheepers (Post-doctoral fellow). The taxonomic diversity and functional roles of soil biota: Collembola as exemplars.

Sara Fernandes (MSc). Bee diversity in Angola and community change along an altitudinal gradient at Serra da Chela (Bruco).

Junyin Deng (PhD). Effects of ecology on Ficus population genetic structure in southern Africa.

Abusisiwe Ndaba (MSc). Integrative taxonomy and biogeography of the genus Anoplolepis (Formicidae, Hymenoptera). University of Cape Town.

Sariana Faure (PhD). Systematics and evolutionary assessment of Chalcididae (Chalcidoidea, Hymenoptera). Rhodes University.

Nokuthula Mbanyana (Nhleko) (PhD). Unravelling the biogeographical history of the southern African ant genus Ocymyrmex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): an integrative approach. Stellenbosch University.

Terry Reynolds Berry (Post-doctoral fellow). Systematics of the parasitoid Darwin wasp subfamily Banchinae (Hymenoptera; Ichneumonidae) in the Afrotropical region. Iziko Museums of South Africa.

Current students and post docs

Tristan Pitcher (MSc). Morphological revision and DNA barcoding of parasitoid wasps attacking false codling moth Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick), with emphasis on Trichogrammatoidea. University of Cape Town

Simiso Mnguni (MSc). Oviposition dynamics and sex ratio model assumptions in pollinating fig wasps. University of Pretoria.

Atiyeh Naghizadeh (PhD). Systematics and evolution of fig associated Sycophila (Eurytomidae, Chalcidoidea, Hymenoptera). University of Cape Town.

Abusisiwe Ndaba (PhD). Ant species richness across an altitudinal transect in the Cederberg (South Africa) (Formicidae, Hymenoptera). University of Cape Town.

Mikhaila Gordon (Post-doctoral fellow). Systematics of the parasitoid Darwin wasp genus Netelia (Hymenoptera; Ichneumonidae; Tryphoninae) in the Afrotropical region. Iziko Museums of South Africa.

Scientific Publications (ResearchGate)

Rasplus J-Y, van Noort S, Farache FAH, Cruaud A. In press. Agaonidae, Chapter 8 in J.M. Heraty and J.B. Woolley, Chalcidoidea of the World, CABI Press, Oxford, UK.

van Noort S, Rasplus J-Y, Mitroiu M-D. In press. Diparidae, Chapter 22 in J.M. Heraty and J.B. Woolley, Chalcidoidea of the World, CABI Press, Oxford, UK.

Hanson PE, Janšta P, Viciriuc I-M, Mitroiu M-D, van Noort S, Rasplus J-Y. In press. Ormyridae, Chapter 48 in J.M. Heraty and J.B. Woolley, Chalcidoidea of the World, CABI Press, Oxford, UK.

Gibson GAP, van Noort S. In press. Tanaostigmatidae, Chapter 57 in J.M. Heraty and J.B. Woolley, Chalcidoidea of the World, CABI Press, Oxford, UK.

Polašek O, Onah I, Kehinde T, Rojo V, van Noort S, Carpenter JM. In press. Revision of the mainland African species of the Old World social wasp genus Ropalidia Guérin-Méneville 1831 (Hymenoptera; Vespidae). Zootaxa

van Noort S, Mitroiu M-D, Burks R, Gibson G, Hanson P, Heraty J, Janšta P, Cruaud A, Rasplus J-Y. 2024. Redefining Ormyridae (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea) with establishment of subfamilies and description of new genera. Systematic Entomology 1-48. https://doi.org/10.1111/syen.12630

van Noort S. 2024. Role of taxonomy and museums in insect conservation. Chapter 35. Pp 450-460. In (eds) Pryke J, Samways M, New T, Cardoso P, Gaigher R. Routledge handbook for insect conservation. Taylor and Francis. https://www.routledge.com/Routledge-Handbook-of-Insect-Conservation/Pryke-Samways-New-Cardoso-Gaigher/p/book/9781032259505?_ga=1320746749.1711670400

Mnguni SP, Labuschagne T, de Waal PJ, van Noort S, Greeff M. 2024. The occurrence of sequential oviposition in fig wasps and the implications for interpreting sex ratio data. Ecological Entomology 1-4. https://doi.org/10.1111/een.13319

Moffat R, van Noort S, Coetzee J, Hill M. 2024. Biotic resistance towards Hydrellia egeriae, a biological control agent for the aquatic weed Egeria densa, in South Africa. African Entomology 32:e15718. https://doi.org/10.17159/2254-8854/2024/a15718

van Noort, S & Broad, G. 2024. Wasps of the World - A Guide to Every Family. Princeton University Press. 240 pp. https://press.princeton.edu/books/hardcover/9780691238548/wasps-of-the-world

Mitroiu MD, van Noort S, Rasplus JY. 2024. New genera of Afrotropical Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera: Cerocephalidae, Epichrysomallidae, Pirenidae and Pteromalidae). PeerJ 12:e16798 https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.16798

Koutsoukos E, Compton SG, van Noort S, Avtzis DN, Askew RR. 2024. A new species of Ormyrus Westwood (Hymenoptera, Ormyridae) developing in Ficus microcarpa fruits in Europe. European Journal of Taxonomy 917(1): 170-193. https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2024.917.2397

Cruaud A, Rasplus J-Y, Zhang J, Burks R, Delvare G, Fusu L, Gibson GAP, Gumovsky A, Hanson P, Huber JT, Janšta P, Mitroiu M-D, Noyes JS, van Noort S, Baker A, Böhmová J, Baur H, Blaimer BB, Brady1 SG, Bubeníková K, Chartois M, Copeland RS, Dale-Skey Papilloud N, Dal Molin A, Darling C, Dominguez C, Fisher N, Gates MW, Gebiola M, Guerrieri E, Haas M, Hansson C, Heydon S, Kresslein RL, Krogmann L, Moriarty Lemmon E, Mottern J, Murray E, Nidelet S, Nieves Aldrey JL, Perry R, Peters RS, Pinto JD, Polaszek A, Sauné L, Schmidt S, Torréns J, Triapitsyn S, Tselikh EV, Ubaidillah R, Yoder M, Lemmon A, Woolley JB, Heraty JM. 2024. The Chalcidoidea bush of life – Evolutionary history of a massive radiation of minute wasps. Cladistics 40: 34-63. http://doi.org/10.1111/cla.12561

Mbanyana N, Blaimer BB, Le Roux JJ, van Noort S, Brady SG, Wossler TC. 2023. Out of the desert: paleoclimatic changes drove the diversification of arid-adapted Ocymyrmex ants in southern Africa. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 107977 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2023.107977

Schwartz J, van Noort S, Johnson, NF. 2023. Species of the Old World genus Dichoteleas Kieffer (Hymenoptera, Scelionidae). ZooKeys 1182(1): 183-205. http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.1182.104943

Reynolds T, van Noort S. 2023. Two new species of the genus Cryptopimpla Taschenberg (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Banchinae) with an updated key to African species. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 96: 667-696. https://doi.org/10.3897/jhr.96.104038

Ndaba A, Munyai TC, Mbanyana N, van Noort S, Janion-Scheepers C. 2023. Now you see me, now you don’t: verifying the absence of alien invasive yellow crazy ant Anoplolepis gracilipes in South Africa. Frontiers of Insect Science 3: 1176810. http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/finsc.2023.1176810

Dal Pos D, Claridge B, Diller E, van Noort S, Di Giovanni F. 2023. Still counting: new records, nomenclatural notes, and three new species of Phaeogenini (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Ichneumoninae) from the Afrotropical region. European Journal of Taxonomy 868: 1-71. https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2023.868.2105

Burks R, Mitroiu M-D, Fusu L, Heraty JM, Janšta P, Heydon S, Papilloud ND-S, Peters RS, Tselikh EV, Woolley JB, van Noort S, Baur H, Cruaud A, Darling C, Haas M, Hanson P, Krogmann L, Rasplus J-Y. 2022. From hell’s heart I stab at thee! A determined approach to rendering Pteromalidae (Hymenoptera) monophyletic. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 94:13-88. https://doi.org/10.3897/jhr.94.94263


van Noort S, Shaw S, Copeland R. 2022. Revision of the endemic African genus Dinapsis (Dinapsini, Megalyridae, Hymenoptera) with description of seven new species. ZooKeys 1112: 27-122. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.1112.82307


van Noort S, Fernandez-Triana J, Baur H, Shaw MR. 2022. Identity of wasp parasitoids (Hymenoptera) attacking Pieris brassicae (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) in South Africa. African Entomology 30: e11738 https://doi.org/10.17159/2254-8854/2022/a11738


Kjellberg, F. van Noort, S, Rasplus JY. 2022. Fig wasps and pollination. 231-255. In Sarkhosh, A., Yavari A., Ferguson, L (Editors): The Fig: Botany, Production and Uses. CAB International. 512 pp. https://www.cabi.org/bookshop/book/9781789242898/


Polašek O, Bellingan T, van Noort S. 2022. A new species of paper wasp from the genus Ropalidia Guérin-Méneville from South Africa (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 90: 213–222. https://doi.org/10.3897/jhr.90.81581


Gumovsky A, van Noort, S. 2022. Afronympha, a new genus of Entedoninae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) from the rainforests of Africa. Zootaxa 5104: 242–250. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5104.2.4


Bossert S, van Noort S. 2022. A group of two: Scrapter peringueyi is not a synonym of Scrapter heterodoxus (Hymenoptera, Colletidae, Scraptrinae). African Invertebrates 63(1): 1–18.


van Noort S, Lahey Z, Talamas EJ, Austin AD, Masner L, Polaszek A, Johnson NF. 2021. Review of Afrotropical sceliotracheline parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae). In: Lahey Z, Talamas E (Eds) Advances in the Systematics of Platygastroidea III. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 87: 115-222. https://doi.org/10.3897/jhr.87.73770

Talamas EJ, Bremer JS, Moore MR, Bon M-C, Lahey Z, Roberts CG, Combee LA, McGathey N, van Noort S, Timokhov AV, Hougardy E, Hogg B. 2021
. A maximalist approach to the systematics of a biological control agent: Gryon aetherium Talamas, sp. nov. (Hymenoptera, Scelionidae). In: Lahey Z, Talamas E (Eds) Advances in the Systematics of Platygastroidea III. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 87: 323-480. https://doi.org/10.3897/jhr.87.72842


Oberprieler RG, Morton AS, van Noort S. 2021. The life history of Vegetia grimmia (Geyer, 1832) (Saturniidae: Bunaeinae: Micragonini), with an account of its discovery, distribution and taxonomic distinction. Metamorphosis 32: 74–92. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.4314/met.v32i1.14

van Noort S, Belokobylskij SA, Touret-Alby A. 2021. Rediscovery of the endemic Afrotropical genus Spathioplites (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Doryctinae) with major range extension records for Spathioplites phreneticus. African Invertebrates 62(2): 497–520. https://doi.org/10.3897/AfrInvertebr.62.74103


Hlaka V, Guilbert E, van Noort S, Allsopp E, Langley J, Van Asch B. 2021. Species diversity and phylogenetic relationships of olive lace bugs found in South Africa suggest a common evolutionary adaptation to feeding on Olea europaea. Insects 2021, 12, 830. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12090830

van Noort S, Smith R, Coetzee JA. 2021. Identity of parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae and Eulophidae) reared from aquatic leaf-mining flies (Diptera: Ephydridae) on invasive Brazilian waterweed Egeria densa in South Africa. African Invertebrates 62: 287–314. https://doi.org/10.3897/afrinvertebr.62.62842

Gibson GAP, Dzhanokmen KA, van Noort S, Ghahari H and Doğanlar M. 2021. Chapter 16 Family Pteromalidae Dalman, 1820. In: H. Ghahari, G.A.P. Gibson and G. Viggiani (eds.). Chalcidoidea of Iran (Insecta: Hymenoptera), CAB International, pp. 295-353 http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/9781789248463.0295


Ghahari H, van Noort S, Gibson GAP, Viggiani G and Doğanlar M. 2021. Chapter 1 Family Agaonidae Walker, 1846. In: H. Ghahari, G.A.P. Gibson and G. Viggiani (eds.). Chalcidoidea of Iran (Insecta: Hymenoptera), CAB International, pp. 15-19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/9781789248463.0015

Reynolds Berry T, van Noort S. 2020. Revision of the endemic Afrotropical genus Tetractenion (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) with an identification key to genera of Banchinae for the region. ZooKeys 1007: 49-84. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.1007.55543


van Noort S, Nhleko N, Janion-Scheepers C. 2020. Invertebrates of Grootbos Nature Reserve with a focus on Hymenoptera (Wasps, Bees & Ants) and Collembola (Springtails). Report submitted to Grootbos Foundation 15 December 2020.


Staude HS, Maclean M, Mecenero S, Pretorius J, Oberprieler R, van Noort S, Sharp A, Sharp I, Balona J, Bradley S, Brink M, Morton AS, Botha MJ, Collins SC, Grobler Q, Edge DA, Williams MC. 2020. An overview of Lepidoptera-host-parasitoid associations for the Afrotropical region, including an illustrated report on 2 370 host- and 119 parasitoid associations of Afrotropical Lepidoptera. Metamorphosis 31: 1-380.


Heraty JM, Mbanyana, N & van Noort S. 2020.  A new species of Eucharissa (Eucharitidae) from South Africa, with an evaluation of the importance of pupae for assessing relationships in these ant parasitoids. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 79: 43–55. https://doi.org/10.3897/jhr.79.56042


Gumovsky A, Tetyana B, van Noort S. 2020. First record of the genus Setelacher (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae, Eulophinae) from the Afrotropical region with description of a new species. Journal of Natural History 54: 611-620. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222933.2020.1764647


van Noort S, Copeland RS. 2020. First record of the genus Tanaostigma (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Tanaostigmatidae) from the Afrotropical region with description of three new species. Journal of Natural History 54: 703-722. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222933.2020.1746426


Armstrong AJ, Louw SL, Staude HS, Terblanche RF, Edge DA, van Noort S. 2020. Observations on parasitoid interaction with Zerenopsis lepida (Walker, 1854) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae: Ennominae: Diptychini) at Entumeni Nature Reserve, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Metamorphosis 31: 49–52.


Deng J-Y, van Noort S, Compton, SG, Chen Y, Greeff JM. 2020.Conservation implications of fine scale
population genetic structure of Ficus species in South African forests
. Forest Ecology and Management 474, 2020, 118387. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2020.118387


Buffington ML, Forshage M, Liljeblad J, Tang CT, van Noort, S. 2020. World Cynipoidea (Hymenoptera): a key to higher-level groups. Insect Systematics and Diversity 4(4): 1–69. https://doi.org/10.1093/isd/ixaa003


Cruaud, A., Delvare, G., Nidelet, S., Sauné, L., Ratnasingham, S., Chartois, M., Blaimer, B.B., Gates, M., Brady, S.G., Faure, S., van Noort, S., Rossi, J.-P. and Rasplus, J.-Y. 2020. Ultra-Conserved Elements and morphology reciprocally illuminate conflicting phylogenetic hypotheses in Chalcididae (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea). Cladistics. doi:10.1111/cla.12416 https://doi.org/10.1111/cla.12416


Langley J, Cornwall M, Powell C, Costa C, Allsopp E, van Noort S, Guilbert E, van Asch B. 2020. First report of the lace bug Neoplerochila paliatseasi (Rodrigues, 1981) (Hemiptera: Tingidae) infesting cultivated olive trees in South Africa, and its complete mitochondrial sequence. Zootaxa 4722: 443–462. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4722.5.3

Grehan JR, Ralston CD, van Noort S. 2019. Specialized wing scales in the male of the South African moth Leto venus (Cramer, 1780) (Lepidoptera: Hepialidae). Metamorphosis 30: 43–45.


Deng J-Y, van Noort S, Compton SG, Chen Y,Greeff JM. 2019. The genetic consequences of habitat specificity for fig trees in southern African fragmented forests. Acta Oecologica 102: 2020, 103506. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actao.2019.103506


van Noort S, Moll E. 2019. Observations on feeding behaviour of adults of the Common Buff butterfly, Baliochila aslanga (Lycaenidae; Poritiinae) at extra-floral nectaries in Adenopodia spicata (Mimosaceae). Metamorphosis 30: 25–29.


Klopfstein S, Santos BF, Shaw MR, Alvarado M, Bennett AMR, Dal Pos D, Giannotta M, Herrera Florez AF, Karlsson D, Khalaim AI, Lima AR, Alessandro R, Mikó I, Sääksjärvi IE, Shimizu S, Spasojevic T, van Noort S, Vilhelmsen L, Broad GR. 2019. Darwin wasps: a new name heralds renewed efforts to unravel the evolutionary history of Ichneumonidae. Entomological Communications 1: ec01006–ec01006


Lahey Z, van Noort S, Polaszek A, Masner L, Johnson N. 2019. Revision of the Afrotropical genus Pulchrisolia Szabó (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae, Sceliotrachelinae). In: Talamas E (Eds) Advances in the Systematics of Platygastroidea II. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 73: 39-71. https://doi.org/10.3897/jhr.73.33876


Hopkins T, Roininen H, van Noort S, Broad GR, Kaunisto K, Sääksjärvi IE. 2019. Extensive sampling and thorough taxonomic assessment of Afrotropical Rhyssinae (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) reveals two new species and demonstrates the limitations of previous sampling efforts. ZooKeys 878: 33-71. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.878.37845


Kraus EC, Coetzee J, van Noort S & Olmi M. 2019. First record of an indigenous South African parasitoid wasp on an imported biological control agent, the water hyacinth hopper. Biocontrol Science & Technology https://doi.org/10.1080/09583157.2019.1660306


Haran J, Grove T, van Noort S, Benoit L, Addison, P. 2019. Natural biocontrol of fruit flies by parasitoids in indigenous hosts: a perspective for management of populations in and out of the orchard. Biological Control 137: October 2019, 104022. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocontrol.2019.104022


Olmi, M., Copeland, R.S. & van Noort, S. 2019. Dryinidae of the Afrotropical region (Hymenoptera: Chrysidoidea). Zootaxa 4630: 1-619. http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4630.1.1


van Noort S & Azevedo CO. 2019. Discovery of the male of the rare Afrotropical species Tuberepyris codex Azevedo & Mugrabi (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae). African Entomology 27(1): 43–48. https://doi.org/10.4001/003.027.0043


Azevedo CO, van Noort S. 2019. Review of Afrotropical Glenosema Kieffer (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae) with description of 13 new species. Zootaxa 4585 (3): 401–437. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4585.3.1


van Noort, S. 2019. First Field Guide to Butterflies and Moths of Southern Africa. Struik Nature, Cape Town, 57 pp. ISBN 9781775846970


van den Bosch K, van Noort S & Cron GV.  2019. Predation of fruit and seed of Aloe pretoriensis – a little known effect on reproductive output. Austral Ecology https://doi.org/10.1111/aec.12705


da Costa LT, Powell C, van Noort S, Costa C, Sinno M, Caleca V, Rhode C, Kennedy RJ, van Staden M, van Asch B. 2019. The complete mitochondrial genome of Bactrocera biguttula (Bezzi) (Diptera: Tephritidae) and phylogenetic relationships with other Dacini. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 126: 130-140. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.12.186


Santos BF, Alvarado M, Sääksjärvi IE, van Noort S, Villemant C & Brady SG. 2018. Molecular phylogeny of Ateleutinae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae): systematics and biogeography of a widespread parasitoid wasp lineage. Zoological Journal of the Linnaean Society zly072 https://doi.org/10.1093/zoolinnean/zly072


Buffington ML, Copeland RS, van Noort S. 2018. Revision of Afroserphus Masner (Hymenoptera: Proctotrupidae) with the description of two new species. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 120: 687-707. https://doi.org/10.4289/0013-8797.120.4.687


Powell C, Caleca V, Sinno M, van Staden M, Allsopp E, van Noort S, Costa C, Rhode C, van Asch B. 2018. Barcoding of parasitoid wasps (Braconidae and Chalcidoidea) associated with wild and cultivated olives in the Western Cape of South Africa. Genome http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/gen-2018-0068


Al-Khalaf AA., van Noort S, Compton SG. 2018. Fig wasps and fig trees in Saudi Arabia. King Saud University Press, Riyadh, 75 pp.


Heraty JM, Burks RA, Nhleko N & van Noort S. 2018. Morphology and life history of an ant parasitoid, Psilocharis afra (Hymenoptera: Eucharitidae). Zootaxa 4482: 491–510. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.4482.3.3 https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4482.3.3


Owen CA, Coetzee JA, van Noort S & Compton S. 2018. Nest site choice by the intertidal spider Desis formidabilis (Araneae: Desidae) and nest utilization by its unusual hymenopteran egg parasitoid. Ecological Entomology 44: 62-70. doi:10.1111/een.12675 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/een.12675


van Noort S, Triapitsyn SV. 2018. Revision of the Polynema dikobraz species-group with description of a remarkable new species from South Africa (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Mymaridae). ZooKeys 783: 67-84. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.783.26872


Azevedo CO, van Noort S & Notton DG. 2018. Rediscovery of Disepyris semiruber (Kieffer) comb. nov. (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) in Southern Africa, with first description of its male. Journal of Natural History 52:23-24, 1537-1549, DOI: 10.1080/00222933.2018.1478997 https://doi.org/10.1080/00222933.2018.1478997      


Quicke DL J, Koch F, Broad GR, Bennett AMR, van Noort S, Hebert PDN, Butcher BA. 2018. A new species of Rhytimorpha Szépligeti (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Braconinae) from Israel. Zoology in the Middle East doi:10.1080/09397140.2018.1470301. https://doi.org/10.1080/09397140.2018.1470301


Azevedo CO & van Noort S. 2018. Flat wasp fauna from Cousine island, Seychelles, with description of a new species of Holepyris (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae). Atoll Research Bulletin 615: 1-12. http://opensi.si.edu/index.php/smithsonian/catalog/book/179


Peters RS, Niehuis O, Gunkel S, Bläser M, Mayer C, Podsiadlowski L, Kozlov A, Donath A, van Noort S, Liu S, Zhou X, Misof B, Heraty J, Krogmann L. 2018. Transcriptome sequence-based phylogeny of chalcidoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) reveals a history of rapid radiations, convergence, and evolutionary success. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 120: 286-296. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2017.12.005.


Vilhelmsen L, Blank SM, Sechi D, Ndiaye MM, Niang AA, Guisse A, van Noort S. 2017. The Orussidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera) of Africa. Proceedings of the American Entomological Society 119: 879- 930. https://doi.org/10.4289/0013-8797.119.SpecialIssue.879


Liu Y, Rasplus JY, van Noort S, Li Z, Huang D. 2017. Sycidiphaga, a new genus of Sycophaginae Walker, 1975 (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Agaonidae) associated with Ficus subgenus Sycidium in southern China. Zootaxa 4306: 91-107. http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4306.1.5


Quicke DLJ, Guy TJ, van Noort S, Broad GR, Butcher BA. 2017. New species of Bacuma Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Braconinae) from Kenya and West Darfur with a key to species. Zootaxa 4263: 43–71. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4263.1.2


Maquart PO, van Noort S. 2017 Description of a new species of Capederces (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae) from South Africa. Zootaxa 4244 (4): 583–587


Owen CA, Coetzee JA, van Noort S, Austin A. 2017. Assessing the morphological and physiological adaptations of the parasitoid wasp Echthrodesis lamorali for survival in an intertidal environment. Physiological Entomology 42: 173-180. DOI: 10.1111/phen.12187.


Holness, S., Driver, A., Todd, S., Snaddon, K., Hamer, M., Raimondo, D., Daniels, F., Alexander, G., Bazelet, C., Bills, R., Bragg, C., Branch, B., Bruyns, P., Chakona, A., Child, M., Clarke, R.V., Coetzer, A., Coetzer, W., Colville, J., Conradie, W., Dean, R., Eardley, C., Ebrahim, I., Edge, D., Gaynor, D., Gear, S., Herbert, D., Kgatla, M., Lamula, K., Leballo, G., Lyle, R., Malatji, N., Mansell, M., Mecenero, S., Midgley, J., Mlambo, M., Mtshali, H., Simaika, J., Skowno, A., Staude, H., Tolley, K., Underhill, L., van der Colff, D., van Noort, S. and von Staden, L. 2016. Biodiversity and Ecological Impacts: Landscape Processes, Ecosystems and Species. Pp 1-72. In Scholes, R., Lochner, P., Schreiner, G., Snyman-Van der Walt, L. and de Jager, M. (eds.). 2016. Shale Gas Development in the Central Karoo: A Scientific Assessment of the Opportunities and Risks. CSIR/IU/021MH/EXP/2016/003/A, ISBN 978-0-7988-5631-7, Pretoria: CSIR. Available at http://seasgd.csir.co.za/scientific-assessment-chapters/


Reynolds Berry T & van Noort S. 2016. Review of Afrotropical Cryptopimpla Taschenberg (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Banchinae), with description of nine new species. ZooKeys 640: 103–137. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.640.10334


Rousse P, Broad GR & van Noort S. 2016. Review of the genus Genaemirum Heinrich (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Ichneumoninae) with interactive identification keys to species. ZooKeys 636: 77-105.



Tortorici F, Caleca V, van Noort S & Masner L. 2016. Revision of Afrotropical Dyscritobaeus Perkins, 1910 (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae). Zootaxa 4178: 1-59. doi: 10.11646/zootaxa.4178.1.1


Rousse P, Quicke DLJ, Matthee CA, Lefeuvre P & van Noort S. 2016. A molecular and morphological reassessment of the phylogeny of the subfamily Ophioninae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnaean Society 178: 128–148. doi: 10.1111/zoj.12405


Olmi M, van Noort S & Guglielmino A. 2016. Contribution to the knowledge of Afrotropical Dryinidae, Embolemidae and Sclerogibbidae (Hymenoptera) with description of new species from Central African Republic and Uganda. ZooKeys 578: 45-95.


Maquart PO, Réveillion F, Prendini L, Burger M, Fisher BL & van Noort S. 2016. New distribution records for African whip spiders (Arachnida; Amblypygi). African Entomology 24: 245-246.


Koch F, Goergen G & van Noort S. 2015. The sawflies of Namibia and the western parts of South Africa (Symphyta, Hymenoptera). ABC Taxa 15: 1-262.


van Noort S & Goulet H. 2015. New distribution records for the rare genus Afrotremex Pasteels (Siricidae: Hymenoptera) and provision of interactive Lucid identification keys to species. Biodiversity Data Journal : 1-11 e7160. doi: 10.3897/BDJ.3.e7160


Rousse P. & van Noort S. 2015. Revision of the Afrotropical species of Pristomerus (Ichneumonidae: Cremastinae), with description of 31 new species. European Journal of Taxonomy 124: 1-129. http://dx.doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2015.124


van Noort S, Buffington ML & Forshage M. 2015. Afrotropical Cynipoidea (Hymenoptera). ZooKeys 493: 1-176. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.493.6353


Azevedo CO, Garcia R, Gobbi FT & van Noort S. 2015. Insecta, Hymenoptera, Bethylidae: range extension and filling gaps in Central African Republic. Check List 11: 1-4.


Wang R, Aylwin R, Barwell L, Chen X-Y, Chen Y, Chou L-S, Cobb J, Collette D, Craine L, Giblin-Davis RM, Ghana S, Harper M, Harrison RD, McPherson JR, Peng YQ, Pereira RAS, Reyes-Betancort A, Rodriguez LJV, Strange E, van Noort S, Yang H-W, Yu H, Compton SG. 2015. The fig wasp followers and colonists of a widely introduced fig tree, Ficus microcarpa. Insect Conservation and Diversity 8: 322-336 doi: 10.1111/icad.12111

Maquart PO, Rousse P & van Noort S. 2014. Revision of the Afrotropical genus Phorotrophus Saussure, 1892 (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Acaenitinae), with description of eight new species. African Natural History
10: 57-117.

Rousse P. & van Noort S. 2014. Afrotropical Ophioninae (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae): an update of Gauld & Mitchell's revision, including two new species and an interactive matrix identification key. ZooKeys 456: 59–73. http://dx.doi:10.3897/zookeys.456.8140


Rousse P. & van Noort S. 2014. Revision of the Afrotropical Lycorininae (Ichneumonidae; Hymenoptera) II. Three new species and additional distribution records. Zootaxa 3884 (3): 222–234. http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3884.3.2

van Noort S, Buffington ML & Forshage M. 2014. Review of Afrotropical Figitinae (Figitidae, Cynipoidea, Hymenoptera) with the first records of Neralsia and Lonchidia for the region. ZooKeys 453: 37–69. http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.453.8511

Owen CA, Coetzee JA & van Noort S. 2014. Distribution range of the South African maritime spider-egg parasitoid wasp, Echthrodesis lamorali (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae: Scelioninae). African Invertebrates 55 (2): 323–332.


Braet Y, van Noort S & Kittel RN. 2014. New species of the ‘rare’ genera Dentigaster Zettel, 1990 and Odontosphaeropyx Cameron, 1910 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae: Cheloninae). Austral Entomology http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aen.12112


Rousse P & van Noort S. 2014. A review of the Afrotropical Rhyssinae (Ichneumonidae: Hymenoptera) with descriptions of five new species. European Journal of Taxonomy 91: 1-42. http://dx.doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2014.91


Rousse P & van Noort S. 2014. Belesica madiba and Cremastus tutui (Ichneumonidae: Cremastinae), two entomological gems from South Africa. Zootaxa 3795: 161–173. http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3795.2.5


van Noort S, Masner L, Popovici O,  Valerio AA, Taekul C, Johnson, NF,  Murphy NP & Austin AD. 2014. Systematics and biology of the aberrant intertidal parasitoid wasp Echthrodesis lamorali Masner (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae s.l.): a parasitoid of spider eggs. Invertebrate Systematics 28: 1-16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/IS13015


Minnaar IA, Shinner R, van Noort S & Clusella-Trullas S. 2014. New records of the parasitic wasp Dinocampus coccinellae and its hosts in South Africa. African Entomology 22: 226-229.


Yoder M, Valerio A, Polaszek A, van Noort S, Masner L, Johnson N. 2014. Monograph of the Afrotropical species of Scelio Latreille (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae), egg parasitoids of acridid grasshoppers (Orthoptera, Acrididae). ZooKeys 380: 1-188.  http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.380.5755


Rousse P, van Noort S & Diller E. 2013. Revision of the Afrotropical Phaeogenini (Ichneumonidae, Ichneumoninae), with description of a new genus and twelve new species. Zookeys 354: 1-85. http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.354.5968.


Cruaud A, Underhill JG, Huguin M, Genson G, Jabbour-Zahab R, Tolley KA, Rasplus JY, van Noort S. 2013. A Multilocus Phylogeny of the World Sycoecinae Fig Wasps (Chalcidoidea: Pteromalidae). PLoS ONE 8(11): e79291. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079291  


van Noort, S., Wang, R. & Compton, S.G. 2013. Fig wasps (Hymenoptera; Chalcidoidea: Agaonidae, Pteromalidae) associated with Asian fig trees (Ficus, Moraceae) in Southern Africa: Asian followers and African colonistsAfrican Invertebrates 54: 381–400. https://doi.org/10.5733/afin.054.0208


ROUSSSE, P. & VAN NOORT, S. 2013. Revision of the Afrotropical Lycorininae (Ichneumonidae; Hymenoptera) with description of a new species from South Africa. Zootaxa 3666 (2): 252–266. http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3666.2.8


VAN NOORT, S. & BUFFINGTON, M.L. 2013. Revision of the Afrotropical Mayrellinae (Cynipoidea, Liopteridae), with the first record of Paramblynotus from Madagascar. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 31: 1-64. http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/JHR.31.4072


Gaigher, R, Samways, M.J. & van Noort, S. 2013. Saving a tropical ecosystem from a destructive ant-scale (Pheidole megacephala, Pulvinaria urbicola) mutualism with support from a diverse natural enemy complex. Biological Invasions http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10530-013-0437-8


Heraty, J. M., Burks, R. A., Cruaud, A., Gibson, G. A. P., Liljeblad, J., Munro, J., Rasplus, J.-Y., Delvare, G., Janšta, P., Gumovsky, A., Huber, J., Woolley, J. B., Krogmann, L., Heydon, S., Polaszek, A., Schmidt, S., Darling, D. C., Gates, M. W., Mottern, J., Murray, E., Dal Molin, A., Triapitsyn, S., Baur, H., Pinto, J. D., van Noort, S., George, J. and Yoder, M. 2013. A phylogenetic analysis of the megadiverse Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). Cladistics 29: 466-542.



McLeish, M.J., Beukman, G., van Noort, S., Wossler, T.C. 2012. Host-Plant Species Conservatism and Ecology of a Parasitoid Fig Wasp Genus (Chalcidoidea; Sycoryctinae; Arachonia). PLoS ONE 7(9): e44804. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044804


Cruaud, A., N. Rønsted, B. Chantarasuwan, L.S. Chou, W. L. Clement, A. Couloux, B. Cousins, G. Genson, R. D. Harrison, P.E. Hanson, M. Hossaert-Mckey, R. Jabbour-Zahab, E. Jousselin, C. Kerdelhué, F. Kjellberg, C. Lopez-Vaamonde, J. Peebles, Y.Q. Peng, R. Augusto, S. Pereira, T. Schramm, R. Ubaidillah, S. van Noort, G. D. Weiblen, D-R. Yang, A. Yodpinyanee, R. Libeskind-Hadas, J. M. Cook, J-Y. Rasplus & V. Savolainen. 2012. An Extreme Case of Plant-Insect Co-Diversification: Figs and Fig-Pollinating Wasps. Systematic Biology 61: 1029-1047. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/sysbio/sys068


Buffington, M.L. & van Noort, S. 2012. Revision of the Afrotropical Oberthuerellinae (Cynipoidea: Liopteridae). Zookeys 202: 1-154.


Buffington, M.L., Brady, S.G., Morita, S.I. & van Noort, S. 2012. Divergence estimates and early evolutionary history of Figitidae (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea). Systematic Entomology 37: 287-304.


Cornille, A., Underhill, J.G., CRUAUD, A, Hossaert-McKey, M., Johnson, S. D., Tolley, K.A., Kjellberg, F., van Noort, S., Proffit, M. 2012. Floral volatiles, pollinator sharing and diversification in the fig-wasp mutualism: insights from Ficus natalensis and its two wasp pollinators (South Africa). Proceedings of the Royal Society B 279: 1731-1739. http://dx.doi.org/


McLeish, M.J. & van Noort, S. 2012. Codivergence and multiple host species use by fig wasp populations of the Ficus pollination mutualism. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2012, 12:1. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2148-12-1


Cruaud, A., Cook, J., Da-Rong, Y., Genson, G., Jabbour-Zahab, R., Kjellberg, F. Pereira, R.A.S., Rønsted, N., Santos-Mattos, O., Savolainen, V., Ubaidillah, R., Van Noort, S., Yan-Qiong, P. & Rasplus, J.Y. 2011. Fig-fig wasp mutualism, the fall of the strict cospeciation paradigm? Pp 68-102. In: Evolution of plant-pollinator relationships. Patiny S. (ed.). Cambridge University Press.


Ghahari, H & van Noort, S. 2011. A comment on Iranian fig wasps (Chalcidoidea: Agaonidae, Pteromalidae). Linzer biologische Beiträge 43: 1247-1252.


Van Noort, S. & Picker, M. 2011. Wasps, Bees, Ants. Class Insecta, Order Hymenoptera. Pp 140-146. In:  Picker, M. & Griffiths, C. (eds.) Alien & Invasive Animals. A South African perspective. Struik Nature.


CRUAUD, A., JABBOUR-ZAHAB, R., GENSON, G., KJELLBERG, F., KOBMOO, N., VAN NOORT, S., DA-RONG, Y., YAN-QIONG, P., UBAIDILLAH, R., HANSON, P.E., SANTOS-MATTOS, O., FARACHE, F.H.A., PEREIRA, R.A.S., KERDELUÉ, C. & RASPLUS, J.Y. 2011. Phylogeny and evolution of life-history strategies in Sycophaginae non-pollinating fig wasps (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea). BMC Evolutionary Biology 11: 178. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2148-11-178


MCLEISH, M., GUO, D., VAN NOORT, S. & MIDGLEY, G. 2011. Life on the edge: rare and restricted episodes of a pan-tropical mutualism adapting to drier climates. New Phytologist 191: 210-222. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2011.03683.x


CRUAUD, A., JABBOUR-ZAHAB, R., GENSON, G., COULOUX, A., YAN-QIONG, P., DA RONG, Y., UBAIDILLAH, R.,  PEREIRA, R.A.S., KJELLBERG, F., VAN NOORT, S., KERDELHUÉ, C. & RASPLUS, J.Y. 2011. Out of Australia and back again: the world-wide historical biogeography of non-pollinating fig wasps (Hymenoptera: Sycophaginae). Journal of Biogeography 38: 209-225.


MCLEISH, M.J., VAN NOORT, S. & TOLLEY, K.A. 2010. African parasitoid fig wasp diversification is a function of host-fig range. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 57: 122-134.


HUBER, J., READ, J.D. & VAN NOORT, S. 2010. The genus Ooctonus (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) in the Afrotropical region, with comments on other southern hemisphere species. African Entomology 18: 221-234.


van Noort, S & Rasplus, j.y. 2010. Order Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea associated with figs (families Agaonidae & Pteromalidae). In: A. van Harten (ed.) Arthropod fauna of UAE 3, pp 325-355.


MCLEISH, M.J., VAN NOORT, S. & TOLLEY, K.A. 2010. Parasitoid fig-wasp evolutionary diversification and variation in ecological opportunity. Molecular Ecology 19: 1483-1496.


CRUAUD, A., JABBOUR-ZAHAB, R., GENSON, G., CRUAUD, C.,  COULOUX, A., KJELLBERG, F., VAN NOORT, S. & RASPLUS, J.Y. 2010. Laying the foundations for a new classification of Agaonidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea), a multilocus phylogenetic approach. Cladistics 26: 359-387.


COMPTON, S.G., VAN NOORT, S., MCLEISH M., DEEBLE, M. & STONE, V. 2009. Sneaky African fig wasps that oviposit through holes drilled by other species. African Natural History 5: 9-15.


VAN NOORT, S. & SHAW, S.R. 2009. Megalyridia capensis (Hymenoptera: Megalyridae: Megalyridiini) a relict species endemic to South Africa. African Natural History 5: 1-8.


COMPTON, S.G., GREHAN, K. & VAN NOORT, S. 2009. A fig crop pollinated by three or more species of agaonid fig wasps. African Entomology 17: 215-222.


SHARKEY, M., DICKY, S.Y.,VAN NOORT, S., SELTMANN, K., PENEV, L. 2009. Revision of the Oriental genera of Agathidinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) with an emphasis on Thailand and interactive keys to genera published in three different formats. ZooKeys 21: 19-54.


PENEV, L., SHARKEY, M., ERWIN, T., VAN NOORT, S., BUFFINGTON, M., SELTMANN, K., JOHNSON, N.F., TAYLOR, M., THOMPSON, F.C., DALLWITZ, M.J. 2009. Data publication and dissemination of interactive keys under the open access model. Forum paper. Zookeys 21: 1-17. 


SHARKEY, M., VAN NOORT, S. & WHITFIELD, J. 2009. Revision of Khoikhoiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Zookeys 20: 299-348.


BUFFINGTON, M.L. & VAN NOORT, S. 2009. A world revision of Anacharoides Cameron, 1904 (Hymenoptera: Figitidae) with a description of a new species. Zookeys 20: 245-274.


VAN NOORT, S. & JOHNSON, N. 2009. New species of the plesiomorphic genus Nixonia (Platygastridae, Hymenoptera) from South Africa. Zookeys 20: 31-51.


SHAW, S.R. & VAN NOORT, S. 2009. A new Dinapsis species from the Central African Republic (Hymenoptera: Megalyridae: Dinapsini). Zootaxa 2118: 30-36.


TALAMAS, E. J., JOHNSON, N. F., VAN NOORT, S., MASNER, L., POLASZEK, A. 2009. Revision of world species of the genus Oreiscelio Kieffer (Hymenoptera: Platygastroidea, Platygastridae). Zookeys 6: 1-68.


Notton, D.G., Buffington, M.L. & van Noort, S. 2009. The status of the type material of Pycnostigmus rostratus Cameron (Hymenoptera, Figitidae, Pycnostigminae). Journal of Natural History 43: 181-184.


Jousselin E., Van Noort S., Berry V., Rasplus J.Y., Rønsted N., Erasmus J.C. & Greeff, J.M.  2008. One Fig to bind them all: host conservatism in a fig wasp community unravelled by cospeciation analyses among pollinating and non pollinating fig wasps. Evolution 62-7: 1777–1797.


JOHNSON, N. F., MASNER, L., MUSETTI, L., VAN NOORT, S., RAJMOHANA K., DARLING, D.C., GUIDOTTI, A., POLASZEK, A. 2008. Revision of world species of the genus Heptascelio Kieffer (Hymenoptera: Platygastroidea, Platygastridae). Zootaxa 1776: 1-51.


van Noort S., Gardiner, A.J., Tolley K.A. 2007. New records of Ficus (Moraceae) species emphasize the conservation significance of inselbergs in Mozambique. South African Journal of Botany 73: 642-649.


Lee, J. E., Slabber, S., Jansen van Vuuren, B., van Noort, S. & Chown, S. L. 2007. Colonisation of sub-Antarctic Marion Island by a non-indigenous aphid parasitoid Aphidius matricariae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae). Polar Biology 30: 1195-1201.


ERASMUS J. C., VAN NOORT, S., JOUSSELIN E., & GREEFF, J. M. 2007. Molecular phylogeny of fig wasp pollinators (Agaonidae; Hymenoptera) of Ficus section Galoglychia. Zoologica Scripta 36: 61-78.


BUFFINGTON, M.L. & VAN NOORT, S. 2007. A world revision of the Pycnostigminae (Cynipoidea: Figitidae) with descriptions of seven new species. Zootaxa 1392: 1-30.


VAN NOORT, S., STONE, G.N., WHITEHEAD, V.B. & NIEVES-ALDREY, J.L. 2007. Biology of Rhoophilus loewi (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea: Cynipidae), with implications for the evolution of inquilinism in gall wasps. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 90: 153-172.


VAN NOORT, S. & VAN HARTEN, A. 2006. The species richness of fig wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Agaonidae, Pteromalidae) in Yemen. Fauna of Arabia 22: 449-472.


VAN NOORT, S., PENG, Y.Q. & RASPLUS, J.Y. 2006. First record of the fig wasp genus Diaziella Grandi (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Pteromalidae: Sycoecinae) from the Asian mainland with description of two new species from China. Zootaxa 1337: 39-59.


JOUSSELIN, E., VAN NOORT, S., RASPLUS J.Y., & GREEFF, J. 2006. Patterns of diversification of afrotropical otiteselline fig wasps: phylogenetic study reveals a double radiation across host figs and conservatism of host association. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 19: 253-266.


VAN NOORT, S. & RASPLUS, J.Y. 2005. Revision of the Papua New Guinean fig wasp genus Robertsia Bouček (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Pteromalidae, Sycoecinae). Zootaxa 929: 1-35.


HUNTLY, P.M., VAN NOORT, S & HAMER, M. 2005. Giving increased value to invertebrates through ecotourism. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 35: 53-62.


VAN NOORT, S. 2004. Ichneumonid (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea) Diversity Across an Elevational Gradient on Monts Doudou in South-Western Gabon. California Academy of Sciences Memoir 28: 187-216.


VAN NOORT, S. 2004. Fig Wasp (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Agaonidae, Pteromalidae, Eurytomidae & Ormyridae) and Ficus (Moraceae) Species Richness and Biogeography of Monts Doudou in South-Western Gabon. California Academy of Sciences Memoir 28: 217-233.


JOUSSELIN, E., VAN NOORT, S., GREEFF, J. 2004. Labile male morphology and intraspecific male polymorphism in the Philotrypesis fig wasps. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 33: 706-718.


GREEFF, J., VAN NOORT, S., RASPLUS, J.-Y. & KJELLBERG, F. 2003. Dispersal and fighting in male pollinating fig wasps. Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences 326: 121-130.


VAN NOORT, S. 2003. Fig wasps and the pollination of figs, pp 12-21. In Burrows, J. & Burrows, S. Figs of southern & south-central Africa. Umdaus Press, Hatfield, 379pp.


KLAUS-DIETER KLASS, MIKE D. PICKER, JAKOB DAMGAARD, SIMON VAN NOORT,  KOJI TOJO. 2003. The Taxonomy, Genitalic Morphology and Phylogenetic Relationships of Southern African Mantophasmatodea (Insecta). Entomologische Abhandlungen 61: 3-67.


ROBERTSON, H.G. & VAN NOORT, S. 2003. Effects of agricultural practices on ants and other Hymenoptera in four farming areas of South Africa. GEF Conservation Farming Project Report. Pp 1- 125.


RATSIRARSON, H., ROBERTSON, H.G., PICKER, M.D. & VAN NOORT, S. 2002. Indigenous forests versus exotic eucalyptus and pine plantations: a comparison of leaf litter invertebrate communities. African Entomology 10: 93-99.


PICKER, M.D., COLVILLE, J.F. & VAN NOORT, S. 2002. Mantophasmatodea now in South Africa. Science 297: 1475.


VAN NOORT, S. & STONE, G. 2000. Species richness, biogeography, conservation and pollination ecology of butterflies (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea & Papilionoidea) in Mkomazi Game Reserve, Tanzania.  Metamorphosis 11: 77-103.


VAN NOORT, S., PRINSLOO, G.L. & COMPTON, S.G. 2000. Hymenoptera excluding Apoidea (Apiformes) & Formicidae (Insecta) (pp. 289-364). In Kirk-Spriggs, A.H. & Marais, E. (eds). Dâures - biodiversity of the Brandberg Massif, Namibia. Cimbebasia Memoir 9, National Museum of Namibia, Windhoek, 1-389 pp.


RUSSELL-SMITH, A., STONE, G.N. & VAN NOORT, S. 1999. Invertebrate biodiversity of Mkomazi. In Coe, M. J., McWilliam, N. C., Stone, G. N. & Packer, M. (eds). Chapter 10: 171-184.  Mkomazi: the ecology, biodiversity and conservation of a Tanzanian Savanna. Royal Geographical Society (with The Institute of British Geographers), London


VILLET, M.H. & VAN NOORT, S. 1999. Cicadas (Hemiptera, Homoptera, Cicadoidea) of Mkomazi. In Coe, M. J., McWilliam, N. C., Stone, G. N. & Packer, M. (eds). Chapter 12: 223-234. Mkomazi: the ecology, biodiversity and conservation of a Tanzanian Savanna. Royal Geographical Society (with The Institute of British Geographers), London


MANSELL, M.W. & VAN NOORT, S. 1999. Lacewings (Neuroptera) of Mkomazi. In Coe, M. J., McWilliam, N. C., Stone, G. N. & Packer, M. (eds). Chapter 13: 235-248. Mkomazi: the ecology, biodiversity and conservation of a Tanzanian Savanna. Royal Geographical Society (with The Institute of British Geographers), London


LONDT, J.G.H. & VAN NOORT, S. 1999. Hangingflies (Mecoptera, Bittacidae) of Mkomazi. In Coe, M. J., McWilliam, N. C., Stone, G. N. & Packer, M. (eds). Chapter 15: 269-276. Mkomazi: the ecology, biodiversity and conservation of a Tanzanian Savanna. Royal Geographical Society (with The Institute of British Geographers), London


VAN NOORT, S & STONE, G. 1999. Butterflies (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea & Hesperioidea) of Mkomazi. In Coe, M. J., McWilliam, N. C., Stone, G. N. & Packer, M. (eds). Chapter 17: 281-298. Mkomazi: the ecology, biodiversity and conservation of a Tanzanian Savanna. Royal Geographical Society (with The Institute of British Geographers), London


VAN NOORT, S. & COMPTON, S.G. 1999. Fig wasps (Agaonidae, Hymenoptera) and fig trees (Moraceae) of Mkomazi. In Coe, M. J., McWilliam, N. C., Stone, G. N. & Packer, M. (eds). Chapter 18: 299-320. Mkomazi: the ecology, biodiversity and conservation of a Tanzanian Savanna. Royal Geographical Society (with The Institute of British Geographers), London


VAN NOORT, S. 1999. Sasol First Field Guide to Butterflies and Moths of Southern Africa. Struik Publishers, Cape Town, 57 pp. ISBN 9781868722877


VOVLAS, N, TROCCOLI, A, VAN NOORT, S & VAN DEN BERG, E. 1998. Schistonchus africanus n. sp. (Tylenchida: Aphelenchoididae) associated with Ficus thonningii (Moraceae) and its pollinator wasp Elisabethiella stuckenbergi (Agaonidae, Chalcidoidea, Hymenoptera). Journal of Nematology 30: 404-410.


VAN NOORT, S. 1998. The Black Witch, Ascalapha odorata (Linnaeus) (Noctuidae) visits again: an example of long distance wind dispersal. Metamorphosis 9: 93-94.


VAN NOORT, S. & RASPLUS, J.-Y. 1997. Revision of the otiteselline fig wasps (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Agaonidae), I: the Otitesella digitata species-group of the Afrotropical region, with a key to Afrotropical species of Otitesella. African Entomology 5: 125-147.


VAN NOORT, S. & COMPTON, S.G. 1996. Convergent evolution of agaonine and sycoecine (Agaonidae, Chalcidoidea) head shape in response to the constraints of host fig morphology. Journal of Biogeography 23: 415-424.


VAN NOORT, S. 1995. A simple yet effective method for drying alcohol preserved specimens. Chalcid Forum 18: 3-4. Reprinted (1996) in Sphecos 30: 26.


VAN NOORT, S. 1995. An association of the chrysopid Italochrysa neurodes (Rambur) (Neuroptera) with the cicada Platypleura capensis (L.) (Hemiptera). African Entomology 3: 92-94.


COMPTON, S.G., WARE, A.B. & VAN NOORT, S. 1994. African figs and fig wasps: the wasp's eye view of Ficus species. In: Seyani J.H. & Chikuni A.C. (Eds). Proceedings of the XIIIth Plenary Meeting AETFAT, Zomba, pp. 451-459.


VAN NOORT, S. 1994. Systematics of the sycoecine fig wasps (Agaonidae, Chalcidoidea, Hymenoptera), V (Philocaenus concluded, generic key, checklist). Proceedings of the Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen 97: 341-375.


VAN NOORT, S. 1994. Systematics of the sycoecine fig wasps (Agaonidae, Chalcidoidea, Hymenoptera), IV (Philocaenus, in part). Proceedings of the Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen 97: 311-339.


VAN NOORT, S. 1994. Systematics of the sycoecine fig wasps (Agaonidae, Chalcidoidea, Hymenoptera), III (Crossogaster). Proceedings of the Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen 97: 83-122.


VAN NOORT, S. 1993. Systematics of the sycoecine fig wasps (Agaonidae, Chalcidoidea, Hymenoptera), II (Sycoecus). Proceedings of the Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen 96: 449-475.


WARE, A.B., KAYE, P.T., COMPTON, S.G. & VAN NOORT, S. 1993. Fig volatiles: their role in attracting pollinators and maintaining pollinator specificity. Plant Systematics and Evolution 186: 147-156.


VAN NOORT, S. 1993. Systematics of the sycoecine fig wasps (Agaonidae, Chalcidoidea, Hymenoptera), I (Seres). Proceedings of the Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen 96: 233-251.


COMPTON, S.G. & VAN NOORT, S. 1992. Southern African fig wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea): resource utilization and host relationships. Proceedings of the Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen 95: 423-435.


COMPTON, S.G., HOLTON, K.C., RASHBROOK, V.K., VAN NOORT, S. VINCENT, S.L. & WARE, A.B. 1991. Studies of Ceratosolen galili, a non - pollinating agaonid fig wasp (Hymenoptera, Agaonidae). Biotropica 23: 188 - 194.


VAN NOORT, S., WARE, A.B. & COMPTON, S.G. 1989. Pollinator - specific volatile attractants released from the figs of Ficus burtt - davyi. South African Journal of Science 85: 323 - 324.


VAN NOORT, S. & COMPTON, S.G. 1988. Two new species of Otitesella (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Pteromalidae) from Ficus burtt - davyi. Proceedings of the Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen (C) 91: 419 -427.


Newsletter articles, popular articles and reviews


Mbanyana-Nhleko N, van Noort S. 2024. Hotrod ants! Iziko News. https://www.iziko.org.za/news/hotrod-ants/

van Noort S. 2024. New book on Wasps of the World published. Iziko News. https://www.iziko.org.za/news/new-book-on-wasps-of-the-world-published/   

van Noort S, Reynolds T. 2023. New species of Darwin wasps discovered. Iziko News. https://www.iziko.org.za/news/new-species-of-darwin-parasitoid-wasps-discovered/

van Noort S. 2023. A new Darwin parasitoid wasp species from Grootbos Private Nature Reserve. Iziko News. https://www.iziko.org.za/news/a-new-darwin-parasitoid-wasp-species-from-grootbos-private-nature-reserve/

Mbanyana-Nhleko N, van Noort S, Wossler T, Le Roux J, Blaimer B. 2022. It is not the strongest of the species that survives, nor the most intelligent, it is the one that is most adaptable to change: the arid adapted Hot-rod ants (Ocymyrmex) in southern Africa. Iziko News https://www.iziko.org.za/news/it-is-not-the-strongest-of-the-species-that-survives-nor-the-most-intelligent-it-is-the-one-that-is-most-adaptable-to-change-the-arid-adapted-hot-rod-ants-ocymyrmex-in-southern/

van Noort, S. 2022. New species of rare Dinapsis parasitoid wasps named. Iziko News https://www.iziko.org.za/news/rare-new-wasps-species-named/


van Noort, S. 2022. New species of rare South African wasps named. Iziko News https://www.iziko.org.za/news/new-species-rare-south-african-wasps-named


van Noort, S. 2022. Discovery of new species and records of rare African wasps. NSCF Newsletter 13 May 2022  https://mailchi.mp/f579641bc314/nscf-newsletter-13-may-2022?e=55c16d71d7


van Noort S. 2022. Rare parasitoid wasp discovered in South Africa. Iziko eNews 170: 6. https://www.iziko.org.za/news/rare-parasitoid-wasp-discovered-south-africa


van Noort S. 2021. Iconic specimens in the Iziko entomology collection – Mbashe River Buff. Iziko News https://www.iziko.org.za/news/iconic-specimens-iziko-entomology-collection-mbashe-river-buff


van Noort S. 2021. Why we need parasitoid wasps: and the value of museum collections. Iziko News https://www.iziko.org.za/news/why-we-need-parasitoid-wasps-and-value-museum-collections


van Noort S. 2021. Mbashe River Buff, extinction is forever! Pp 17-18 in NSCF value of collections showcase No 3: Iconic, extinct and historically important specimens. https://nscf.org.za/showcase-no-3-iconic-extinct-historically-important-specimens/


van Noort, S. 2021. Parasitoid wasps: essential for our survival. Pp 4-9 in NSCF value of collections showcase No 2: The Fight against Pests and Diseases. https://nscf.org.za/showcase-no-2-the-fight-against-pests-and-diseases/


van Noort S, Mbanyana-Nhleko N, Berry-Reynolds T. 2021. New species of enigmatic African wasps. SANBI NSCF Newsletter. https://mailchi.mp/6af7854a75ea/nscf-newsletter-29-january-2021?e=55c16d71d7


van Noort S, Mbanyana-Nhleko N, Berry-Reynolds T. 2021. New species of enigmatic African wasps. Iziko website.



Zambatis N, van Noort S. 2020. THE QUEEN OF SAVANNA TREES. The sycamore or common cluster fig. KRUGER MAGAZINE, Issue 13 – Spring 2020, pages 42-51.

van Noort, S. 2020 Gall Wasps and their kin - new user-friendly identification key published. NSCF Newsletter https://mailchi.mp/2342596325db/youve-got-mail-nscf-newsletter-7-august-2020?e=55c16d71d7

van Noort, S. 2020. Gall Wasps and their kin. Iziko Newsletter https://www.iziko.org.za/news/gall-wasps-and-their-kin

Mbanyana-Nhleko N, van Noort S. 2020. The buzz about Bees, Wasps and Ants. Iziko website newsletter  https://www.iziko.org.za/news/buzz-about-bees-ants-and-wasps

van Noort, S. 2020. Chipping away slowly at the massive coal face of unexplored African wasp diversity. NSCF Newsletter 2020/05/6 https://mailchi.mp/e1e457fce938/the-first-nscf-newsletter-on-2020hey-you?e=55c16d71d7


van Noort S. 2015. Book review of Pollen Wasps and Flowers in Southern Africa and Wasps and Bees in Southern Africa by S.K. Gess & F.W. Gess. African Entomology 23: 257.


Maquart PO & van Noort S. 2015. Mantophasmatodea un nouvel ordre très discret. Insectes 178: 9-10.


Owen, C.A., Coetzee, J.A. & van Noort, S. 2015. Just when you thought that ‘only a mother could love that face’... The Spider Club News 31(1): 15-16.


Maquart PO, Owen C, Coetzee JA & van Noort S. 2013. L’étrange parasitoïde du bout du monde. Insectes 170: 17-19.


Van Noort S. 2011. Caught in the act - Echthrodesis laying eggs. Skaphion 5(23-28): 1-2.


Van Noort S. 2011. Ukoyika Grillerige Creepy-Crawlies. E-News 95: 1, 8.


Van Noort S. 2011. Figging in Kwazulu-Natal. Hamuli 2(1): 1, 3-7.


Van Noort S. 2010. The great fig wasp hunt. E-News 90: 4.


Van Noort S. 2010. No wasp too small for Iziko bug-huggers. E-News 89: 4.


Van Noort S. 2010. Iziko scientist on the loose in Europe. E-News 87: 4.


Van Noort S. 2009. The maritime platygastrid Echthrodesis lamorali Masner. Skaphion 3(40): 1-3.


Van Noort S. 2009. Maintaining the integrity of Malaise traps running long term under harsh environmental conditions. Skaphion 3(38): 1-3.


Querido, C. 2008. Splendid shot, Simon! E-News 56: 1.


Van Noort S. 2008. Welcome to Mmamotswa. Skaphion 2(22): 2.


Van Noort S. 2008. South African survey reveals further Nixonia gems. Skaphion 2(13): 1-3.


Van Noort S. 2007. PBI at Iziko South African Museum Cape Town. Skaphion 1(11): 1.


VAN NOORT, S. 2004. How fig trees are pollinated – the ultimate challenge. Veld & Flora  90: 13-15.


VAN NOORT, S. 2000. Book review: Lepidoptera of southern Africa. Host-plants & other associations. A catalogue, by Douglas M. Kroon. Veld & Flora, 86(4): 193.


VAN NOORT, S. 2000. Book review: Southern African Insects and their World, by Alan Weaving. African Wildlife, 54(6): 47.


VAN NOORT, S. 2000. Book review: Life in the Balance, by Niles Eldredge. International Affairs, 76: 377.


VAN NOORT, S. 1998. Insect Biodiversity. Poster and handout. Year of Science and Technology Week, Waterfront, Cape Town.


VAN NOORT, S. 1998. Book review: Living Butterflies of Southern Africa. Biology, Ecology and Conservation. Volume 1. Veld & Flora, 84(2): 68-69.


VAN NOORT, S. 1998. Book review: Living Butterflies of Southern Africa. Biology, Ecology and Conservation. Volume 1. Africa - Environment & Wildlife, 6(1): 11.


VAN NOORT, S. 1996. Cabbage White invades southwestern Cape. Africa - Environment & Wildlife, 4(1): 13.


VAN NOORT, S. 1995. Book review: Pennington's Butterflies of Southern Africa, 2nd edition. Africa - Environment and Wildlife, 3(1): 82.


VAN NOORT, S. 1993. The hidden world of the fig. Musenews, 7(3): 1.

Web authors Simon van Noort (Iziko South African Museum)

and Jean-Yves Rasplus (INRA, France)


Citation: van Noort, S. & Rasplus, JY. 2024. Figweb: figs and fig wasps of the world. URL: www.figweb.org(Accessed on <day-month-year>).

Copyright 2004-2024 Iziko Museums of South Africa

website statistics