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Ficus_craterostoma

Ficus craterostoma Mildbraed & Burret 1911

(Life; Embryophyta (plants); Angiospermae (flowering plants); Eudicotyledons; Order: Rosales; Family: Moraceae; Genus: Ficus; Subgenus: Urostigma; Section: Galoglychia; Subsection: Chlamydodorae)

Ficus_craterostoma

Ficus_craterostoma

Ficus_craterostoma

Ficus_craterostoma

Ficus_craterostoma

Ficus_craterostoma

Ficus_craterostoma

Ficus_craterostoma

Ficus_craterostoma

Ficus_craterostoma

Ficus_craterostoma

Ficus craterostoma © Simon van Noort

Distribution

 

Distribution_of_Ficus_craterostoma

Probably two populations: one at low altitude in the Congo basin extending to Sierra Leone; the other at higher altitude extending from South Africa to Uganda and Kenya. The latter population may also occur at higher altitudes in the Congo basin, resulting in a sympatric Distribution separated by altitude and pollination biology.

Biology

Pollinator: Alfonsiella michaloudi Wiebes (central Africa), Alfonsiella pipithiensis (southern & east Africa).

Habitat

In lowland rainforest (central and west African population) and afromontane forest (southern and east African population).

Comments

As currently defined Ficus craterostoma probably constitutes two species distinguished by disparate habitat preference. Each population has a different pollinator species providing further support for this contention.

Description

(after C.C. Berg in Berg & Wiebes 1992):

Biological form

shrub or tree up to 10 m tall, hemi-epiphytic

Leaves

shape & colour

subopposite, subtriangular, (sub)coriaceous, apex truncate, base acute, both surface glabrous

 

size

3-8 x 2-5 cm

 

lateral veins

5-10 pairs, basal pair short, midrib not reaching the apex of the lamina

 

petiole

0.5-2 cm long, glabrous

Stipules

0.5 cm long, glabrous or white puberulous, subpersistent or caducous

Figs

position

in pairs in the leaf axils

 

shape

globose to ellipsoid, Æ 0.8-1.2 cm (fresh), glabrous or puberulous

 

peduncle

none, fig sessile

 

basal bracts

1-1.5 mm long, persistent

References

Berg, C.C. 1988. New taxa and combinations in Ficus (Moraceae) in Africa. Kew Bulletin 43: 77- 97.

Berg, C.C. 1989. Moraceae. In: R.M. Polhill (ed.) Flora of Tropical East Africa. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam.

Berg, C.C. 1990. Distribution of African taxa of Ficus (Moraccae). [Proc. 12th AETFAT]. Mitt. inst. Allg. Bot. Hamburg 23: 401-405.

Berg, C.C. 1990. Annotated check-list of the Ficus species of the African floristic region, with special reference and a key to the taxa of southern Africa. Kirkia, 13: 253-291.

Berg, C.C. 1991. Moraceae. In: E. Launert & G.Y. Pope (eds) Flora Zambesiaca 9, 6. Natural History Museum, London.

Berg, C.C. & Hijman, M.E.E. 1989. Chapter 11. Ficus. Flora of Tropical East Africa (ed. R.M. Polhill). 43-86. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam.

Berg, C.C., Hijman, M.E.E. & Weerdenburg, J.C.A. 1984. Moracées (incl. Cécropiacées). Flore du Gabon 26: 1276.

Berg, C.C., Hijman, M.E.E. & Weerdenburg, J.C.A. 1985. Moracées (incl. Cécropiacées). Flore du Cameroun 28: 1298.

Berg, C.C. & Wiebes, J.T. 1992. African fig trees and fig wasps. Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen. Amsterdam, 1-298 pp.

Bouček Z., A. Watsham & J.T. Wiebes, 1981. The fig wasp fauna of the receptacles of Ficus thonningii (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea). Tijdschrift Voor Entomologie, 124(5): 149-233.

Burrows, J. & Burrows, S. 2003. Figs of southern & south-central Africa. Umdaus Press, Hatfield. 379 pp.

Credits

Photographs and distribution map © Jean-Yves Rasplus or © Simon van Noort (Iziko Museums).

Ficus_faulkneriana Ficus faulkneriana C.C. Berg

Web authors Simon van Noort (Iziko South African Museum)

and Jean-Yves Rasplus (INRA, France)

Copyright 2004-2013 Iziko Museums of South Africa

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